Shaul Hurwitz



PhD (1999), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem



My research interests focus on the coupling between groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and various geological processes, mainly in volcano-hydrothermal systems. In these systems, aqueous and gas-rich fluids are a source of hazard (e.g., propellant in steam-driven explosions, lubricant in mudflows, toxic gases and dissolved constituents), a resource (e.g., geothermal energy and mineral deposits), and a potential indicator for one of the earliest warnings of unrest. Many of the geochemical, geodetic, and seismic signals measured at the ground surface as part of the volcano monitoring techniques have hydrothermal origins or magmatic origins modulated by the intervening hydrothermal system.

My major research objectives are to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of temperature, pressure, chemistry, and phase (e.g. liquid or gas) in volcano-hydrothermal systems and relate them to magmatic and/or volcanic activity. I also apply thermodynamic models and multi-phase numerical models of groundwater flow and heat transport to develop quantitative and conceptual models of hydrothermal systems. This research is intended to support the USGS Volcano Hazards Program’s broad goal of lessening the harmful impacts of volcanic activity and the USGS Geothermal Project goals of exploring and developing technologies that will allow us to tap into reservoirs of geothermal heat that are known to exist in the Earth’s crust. Research questions include: (1) What are the modes of heat and mass transfer from magma to the shallow subsurface? (2) What are the pressure, temperature, and fluid-saturation conditions between magma and the land surface? (3) What are the thermodynamic controls on hydrothermal-rock interaction and the chemistry of hydrothermal discharge? (4) How well-coupled are various fluid flow, transport, and mechanical deformation processes?

Most of my recent work is summarized in review papers on geyser dynamics, Yellowstone’s hydrothermal system and numerical models in magma-hydrothermal systems.



Hurwitz, S., King, J.C., Pederson, G.T., Martin, J.T., Damby, D.E., Manga, M., Hungerford, J.D.G., Peek, S.E., 2020, Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser Shut Down by a Severe 13th Century Drought, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL089871, doi:10.1029/2020GL089871. abstract

Nadeau, P.A., Diefenbach, A.K., Hurwitz, S., Swanson, D.A., 2020, From lava to water: A new era at KīlaueaEos, 101, doi:10.1029/2020EO149557.

Hurwitz, S., Peek, S., King, J., Pigati, J., Honke, J., Damby, D.E., and Stricker, C.A., 2020, Silicified wood from around Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, U.S. Geological Survey data release, doi:10.5066/P9LEQ5HC.

McCleskey, R.B., Hurwitz, S., White, E.B, Roth, D.A., Susong, D., Hungerford, J.D.G., Olson, L., 2020, Sources, fate, and flux of riverine solutes in the Southwest Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 403, 107021, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.107021. abstract

Churchill, D.M., Manga, M., Hurwitz, S., Peek, S., Licciardi, J., Paces, J., 2020, Dating silica sinter (geyserite): A cautionary tale, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, abstract

Hurwitz, S., McCleskey, R.B., Bergfeld, D., Peek, S.E., Susong, D.D., Roth, D.A., Hungerford, J.D.G., White, E.B., Harrison, L.N., Hosseini, B., Vaughan, R.G., Hunt , A.G., Paces, J.B., 2020, Hydrothermal activity in the southwest Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 21, e2019GC008848, doi:10.1029/2019GC008848. abstract

Lerner, A.H., O'Hara, D., Karlstrom, L., Ebmeier, S.K., Anderson, K.R., Hurwitz, S., 2020, The Prevalence and Significance of Offset Magma Reservoirs at Arc Volcanoes, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL087856, doi:10.1029/2020GL087856. abstract

Munoz-Saez, C., Manga, M., Hurwitz, S., Slagter, S., Churchill, D.M., Reich, M., Damby, D., Morata, D., 2020, Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter and postglacial hydrothermal activity in the El Tatio geyser field, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL087908, doi:10.1029/2020GL087908. abstract

Churchill, D.M., Peek, S.E., Hurwitz, S., Manga, M., Damby, D.E., Conrey, R., Paces, J.B., and Licciardi, J.M., 2020,  Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, U.S. Geological Survey data release.

Hurwitz, S., Anderson, K.R., 2019, Temporal Variations in Scrubbing of Magmatic Gases at the Summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'I, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2019GL085904 abstract.

McCleskey, R.B., Roth, D.A., Hurwitz, S., Bergfeld, D., Peek, S.E., Susong, D.D., White, E.B., Hungerford, J., Hunt, A.G., Paces, J.B., Olson, L., 2019, Water chemistry data for selected hot springs and rivers in Southwest Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey data release.

Cullen, J.T., Hurwitz, S., Barnes, J.D., Lassiter, J.C., Penniston-Dorland, S., Kasemann, S.A., Thordsen, J.J., 2019, Temperature-dependent variations in mineralogy, major element chemistry and the stable isotopes of boron, lithium and chlorine resulting from hydration of rhyolite: Constraints from hydrothermal experiments at 150 to 350 °C and 25 MPa, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 261, 269-28, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.07.012, abstract.

Howle, J.F., Evans, W.C., Galloway, D.L., Hsieh, P.A., Hurwitz, S., Smith, G.A., Nawikas, J., 2019, Hydraulic, geochemical, and thermal monitoring of an aquifer system in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes, Mono County, California, 2015–17: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1063, 90 p.

Hurwitz, S., Peek, S., Younger, E.F., and Lee, R.L., 2019, Water level, temperature and chemistry in a deep well on the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i: U.S. Geological Survey data release.

Bouligand, C., Hurwitz, S., Vandemeulebrouck, J., Byrdina, S., Kass, M.A., Lewicki, J., 2019, Heat and mass transport in a vapor-dominated hydrothermal area in Yellowstone National Park, USA: Inferences from magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, subsurface temperature, and diffuse CO2 flux measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 124, doi:10.1029/2018JB016202 abstract.

Clor, L.E., Hurwitz, S., Murphy, F., Howle, J.F., and Peek, S., 2018, Groundwater levels and temperatures in well CH-10b near Hot Creek, Long Valley Caldera, eastern California, U.S. Geological Survey data release.

Munoz-Saez, C., Manga, M. and Hurwitz, S., 2018. Hydrothermal discharge from the El Tatio basin, Atacama, Chile, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 361, 25-35, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.07.007, abstract.

Ball, J.L., Taron, J., Reid, M.E. Hurwitz, S., Finn, C.A., Bedrosian, P.A., 2018, Combining multiphase groundwater flow and slope stability models to assess stratovolcano flank collapse in the Cascade Range, doi:10.1002/2017JB015156, Journal of Geophysical Research, 123. abstract.

Evans, W.C., Hurwitz, S., Bergfeld, D., Howle, J.F., 2018, Hot water in the Long Valley Caldera - The benefits and hazards of this large natural resource, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2018-3009, doi: 10.3133/fs20183009.

Lowenstern, J.B., Sisson, T.W., Hurwitz, S., 2017, Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts, Eos, 98,

Hurwitz, S., Shelly, D.R., 2017, Illuminating the voluminous subsurface structures of Old Faithful geyser, Yellowstone national Park, Geophysical Research Letters, abstract.

Hurwitz, S., Manga, M., 2017, The fascinating and complex dynamics of geyser eruptions, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 45, 31-59 Paper USGS feature story.

McCleskey, R.B., Mahony, D., Hurwitz, S., Heasler, H., Huebner, M.A., Lowenstern, J.B., 2017, River chemistry in Yellowstone National Park: U.S. Geological Survey data release, doi: 10.5066/F7GF0RRD.

Battistel, M., Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Barbieri, M., 2016, The chemistry and isotopic composition of waters in the low-enthalpy geothermal system of Cimino-Vico Volcanic District, Italy, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,  328, 222–229, abstract

King, J.M., Hurwitz, S., Lowenstern, J.B., Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., 2016, Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,  328, 105–114, abstract.

Namiki, A., Ueno, Y., Hurwitz, S., Manga, M., Munoz-Saez, C., Murphy, F., 2016, An experimental study of the role of subsurface plumbing on geothermal discharge, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17, 3691–3716, abstract.

Hurwitz, S., Clor, L.E., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Hunt, A.G., Evans, W.C., 2016, Dissolved gases in hydrothermal (phreatic) and geyser eruptions at Yellowstone National Park, USA, Geology, , 44, 235–238, abstract.

Lowenstern, J.B., Hurwitz, S., McGeehin, J.P.,  2016, Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 310, 132-136, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.005, abstract.

Cullen, J.T., Barnes, J.D., Hurwitz, S., Leeman, W.P., 2015, Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions, Earth and Plentary Science Letters, 426, 225-234, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.06.052, abstract.

Munoz-Saez, C., Manga, M., Hurwitz, S.,, Rudolph, M.L., Namiki, A., Wang, C.-Y., 2015, Dynamics within geyser conduits, and sensitivity to environmental perturbations: Insights from a periodic geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Atacama Desert, Chile, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 292, 41–55, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.01.002, abstract.

Vandemeulebrouck, J., Sohn, R.A., Rudolph, M.L., Hurwitz, S., Manga, M., Johnston, M.J.S., Soule, S.A., McPhee, D., Glen, J.M.G., Karlstrom, L., Murphy, F., 2014, Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, Part 2: Constraints on Subsurface Dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, doi:10.1002/2014JB011526, abstract.

Battistel, M., Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Barbieri, M., 2014, Multicomponent geothermometry applied to a medium-low enthalpy carbonate-evaporite geothermal reservoir, Energy Procedia, 59, 359- 365, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.389. abstract.

Hurwitz, S., Lowenstern, J.B., 2014, Dynamics of the Yellowstone Hydrothermal System, Reviews of Geophysics, 51, doi:10.1002/2014RG000452, abstract.

Hurwitz, S., Sohn, R.A., Luttrell, K., Manga, M. 2014, Triggering and Modulation of Geyser Eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by Earthquakes, Earth Tides, and Weather, Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 1718-1737, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010803, abstract.

Brown, S.T., Kennedy, B.M., DePaolo, D.J., Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., 2013, Ca, Sr, O and D isotope approach to defining the chevolution of hydrothermal fluids: Example from Long Valley, CA, USA, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta122, 209–225, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.08.011, abstract.

Karlstrom, L., Hurwitz, S., Sohn, R.A., Vandemeulebrouck, J., Murphy, F., Rudolph, M.L., Johnston, M.J.S., Manga, M., McCleskey, R.B. 2013, Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, Part 1: Energetics and Eruption Dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1-15, DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50251, abstract.

Luttrell, K., Mencin, D., Francis, O., Hurwitz, S. 2013, Constraints on the Upper Crustal Magma Reservoir Beneath Yellowstone Caldera Inferred From Lake-Seiche Induced Strain Observations,Geophysicsical Research Letters, 40, 501-506, doi:10.1002/grl.50155, 2013. abstract

Evans, W.C., Hurwitz, S., Bergfeld, D., Lewicki, J., Huebner, M.A., Williams, C.F., Brown, S.T. 2013, Fluid chemistry and water-rock interaction in the Long Valley hydrothermal system (USA), Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7, 252–255, doi: 10.1016/j.proeps.2013.03.186abstract

Rudolph, M.L., Manga, M., Hurwitz, S., Johnston, M., Karlstrom, L., Wang, C-Y., 2012, Mechanics of Old Faithful Geyser, Calistoga CA,Geophysics Research Letters, 39, L24308, doi:10.1029/2012GL054012. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Hunt, A.G., Evans, W.C., 2012, Temporal Variations of Geyser Water Chemistry in the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA,Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 13, Q12005, doi:10.1029/2012GC004388. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Harris, R.N., Werner, C.A., Murphy, F., 2012, Heat flow in Vapor Dominated Areas of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field: Implications for the Thermal Budget of the Yellowstone Caldera, J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2012JB009463. abstract

Bergfeld, D.,  Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Hurwitz, S.,  2012, Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Chemical Geology, 330–331, 233–243, abstract

Lowenstern, J. B., Bergfeld, D., Evans, W. C., Hurwitz, S., 2012, Generation and evolution of hydrothermal fluids at Yellowstone: insights from the Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q01017, doi:10.1029/2011GC003835. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Farrar, C.D., Williams, C.F., 2010, The Thermal regime in the Resurgent Dome of Long Valley Caldera, California, Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 198, 233-240. abstract

Farrar, C.D., DeAngelo, J., Williams, C.F., Hurwitz, S., 2010, Temperature Data from Wells in Long Valley Caldera, California, U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 523,

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., 2010, River solute fluxes reflecting active hydrothermal chemical weathering of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA:Chemical Geology, 276, 331–343. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.07.001. abstract

Ingebritsen, S. E., Geiger, S., Hurwitz, S., Driesner, T., 2010, Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems, Reviews of Geophysics, 48, RG1002, doi:10.1029/2009RG000287. abstract

Hutnak, M., Hurwitz, S., Ingebritsen, S., Hsieh., 2009, Numerical models of caldera deformation: Effects of multi-phase and multi-component hydrothermal fluid flow,Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, B04411, doi:10.1029/2008JB006151. abstract

Werner, C.,. Hurwitz, S., Bergfeld, B., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Heasler, H., Jaworowski, C., Hunt, A., 2008, Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 178 , 751-762, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.016. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Kumar, A., Taylor, R., Heasler, H., 2008, Climate-induced variations of geyser periodicity in Yellowstone National Park, USA, Geology, 36, 451-454abstractpress coverage

Lowenstern, J.B., Hurwitz, S., 2008, Monitoring a supervolcano in repose: Heat and volatile flux at the Yellowstone Caldera, Elements, 4 , 35-40. abstract

Ingebritsen, S.E., Hurwitz, S., and Brodsky, E.E., 2008, Note from the Hubbert Quorum, Geofluids, 8, 1-2.

Farrar, C.D., Evans, W.C., Venezky, D.Y., Hurwitz, S., Oliver, L.K., 2007, Boiling water at Hot Creek – the dangerous and dynamic thermal springs in California's Long Valley Caldera: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3045,

Hurwitz , S., Eagan, S., Heasler, H., Lowenstern, J.B., 2007, River chemistry and solute flux in Yellowstone National Park, U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 278,

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Bergfeld, D., Werner, C., Heasler, H., Jaworowski, C., 2007, Extensive hydrothermal rock alteration in a low pH, steam-heated environment: Hot Springs Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y. eds: Proceedings of the Water-Rock Interaction Symposium -12, Kunming, China, p. 81-85. 

Hurwitz, S., Lowenstern, J.B., Heasler, H., 2007 Spatial and temporal geochemical trends in the hydrothermal system of Yellowstone National Park: inferences from river solute fluxes, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Rsearch, 162, 149-171. abstract

Christiansen, L.B., Hurwitz, S., Ingebritsen, S., 2007, Annual modulation of seismicity along the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA, Geophysical research Letters, 34, L04306, doi:10.1029/2006GL028634. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Christiansen, L.B., Hsieh, P., 2007, Hydrothermal fluid flow and Deformation in large calderas: inferences from numerical simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, B02206, doi:10.1029/2006JB004689. abstract

Abedini, A.A., Hurwitz, S., and Evans, W.C., 2006, USGS-NoGaDat – A global dataset of noble gas concentrations and their isotopic ratios in volcanic systems, U.S. Geological SurveyDigitalData Series , 202,

Mariner, R.H., Venezky, D.Y., and HurwitzS.,2006, Chemical and isotopic database of water and gas from hydrothermal systems with an emphasis for the western United States, U.S. Geological Survey DigitalData Series, 169

Christiansen, L.B., Hurwitz, S., Saar , M.O., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Hsieh, P.A., 2005, Seasonal seismicity at western United States volcanic centers: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 240, 307– 321. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Mariner, R.H., Fehn, U., Snyder, G.T., 2005, Systematics of halogen elements and their radioisotopes in thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Central Oregon, Western USA, Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 35, 700-714, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.04.029. abstract

Goldman, M., Gvirtzman, H. and S. Hurwitz, 2004, Mapping saline groundwater beneath the Sea of Galilee and its vicinity using time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) geophysical technique, Israel Journal of Earth Sciences,  53, 187-197. abstract

Evans, W.C., M. van Soest, R.H. Mariner, S. Hurwitz, S.E. Ingebritsen, C.W. Wicks, M.E. Schmidt, 2004, Magmatic intrusion west of Three Sisters, central Oregon, USA: The perspective from spring geochemistry, Geology, 32, 69–72; doi: 10.1130/G19974.1. abstract

Hurwitz , S., K.L. Kipp, M.E. Reid, and S.E. Ingebritsen, 2003, Groundwater flow, heat transport, and water-table position within volcanic edifices: Implications for volcanic processes in the Cascade Range, Journal of Geophysical Research108,  2557, doi: 10.1029/2003JB002565. abstract

Hurwitz, S., and M.J. Johnston, 2003, Groundwater level changes in a deep well in response to an intrusion event on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai’i, Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 22,2173, doi:10.1029/2003GL018676. abstract

Hurwitz , S., and S.E. Ingebritsen, 2003, Good news or bad?: New study of temperature inversions in NSF deep geothermal well at Kilauea volcano: Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, 32, 111-115.

Hurwitz , S., F. Goff, C.J. Janik, W.C. Evans, D.A. Counce, M.L. Sorey, S.E. Ingebritsen, 2003, M ixing of magmatic volatiles with groundwater and interaction with basalt, on the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 2028, doi:10.1029/2001JB001594. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Garfunkel, Z., Ben-Gai, Y., Reznikov, M., Rotstein, Y., and Gvirtzman, H., 2002, The tectonic framework of the Kinarot-Beit Shean basin ( Dead Sea transform): Evidence from multi-channel seismic reflection. Tectonophysics, 359, 289-306. abstract

Hurwitz, S., S.E. Ingebritsen and M.L. Sorey, 2002, Episodic thermal perturbations associated with groundwater flow: Example from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 2297, doi:10.1029/2001JB001654. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Stanislavsky, E., Lyakhovsky, L. and Gvirtzman, H., 2000, Groundwater interactions with an alternating fresh/saline-water lake in a continental rift: Sea of Galilee, Israel. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 112,1694-1702. abstract

Hurwitz, S., Lyakhovsky, L. and Gvirtzman, H., 2000, Transient salt-transport modeling of a shallow brine beneath a fresh-water lake, the Sea of Galilee. Water Resources Research,36, 101-108. abstract

Hurwitz. S., Matmon, A., Ron, H. and Heimann, A., 1999, Deformation along the margins of the Dead Sea Transform: the Yehudia Block, Golan Heights. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 257-264.

Hurwitz, S., Goldman, M., Ezersky, M. and Gvirtzman, H., 1999, Geophysical (TDEM) delineation of a shallow brine beneath a fresh-water lake, the Sea of Galilee. Water Resources Research, 35, 3631-3638. abstract

Rimmer, A., Hurwitz, S. and Gvirtzman, H., 1999, Spatial and temporal characteristics of saline springs: Sea of Galilee, Israel. Ground Water, 37, 663-673. abstract

Goldman, M., Hurwitz, S., Gvirtzman, H., Rotstein, Y. and Rabinovitch, B., 1996. Application of the marine time domain electromagnetic method in lakes: the Sea of Galilee, Israel. European Journal of Environmental Engineering and Geophysics,1, 125-138.

Lyakhovsky, L., Hurwitz, S. and Navon, O., 1996. Bubble growth in rhyolitic melts: Experimental and numerical investigation. Bulletin of Volcanology, 58, 19-32. abstract

Hurwitz, S. and Navon, O., 1994. Bubble nucleation in rhyolitic melts: Experiments at high pressure, temperature and water contents. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,  122, 267-280. abstract