Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,384
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Year Published: 2020

Sphalerite oxidation in seawater with covellite: Implications for seafloor massive sulfide deposits and mine waste

Metal sulfide minerals exist in several marine environments and are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with oxygenated seawater from the time of their formation. Oxidation is both ubiquitous and heterogeneous, as observational and experimental evidence demonstrates that sulfide minerals may oxidize completely on decadal timescales (hydrothermal...

Gartman, Amy; Whisman, Samantha P.; Hein, James R.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic attenuation monitoring of a critically stressed San Andreas fault

We show that seismic attenuation ( ) along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at Parkfield correlates with the occurrence of moderate‐to‐large earthquakes at local and regional distances. Earthquake‐related  anomalies are likely caused by changes in permeability from dilatant static stress changes, damage by strong shaking from local...

Malagnini, Luca; Parsons, Thomas E.

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Year Published: 2020

Ensemble ShakeMaps for magnitude 9 earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone

We develop ensemble ShakeMaps for various magnitude 9 (⁠M">MM 9) earthquakes on the Cascadia megathrust. Ground‐shaking estimates are based on 30 M">MM 9 Cascadia earthquake scenarios, which were selected using a logic‐tree approach that varied the hypocenter location, down‐dip rupture limit, slip distribution, and location of...

Wirth, Erin; Grant, Alex R. R. ; Marafi, Nasser A.; Frankel, Arthur

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Year Published: 2020

Generalizing the inversion‐based PSHA source model for an interconnected fault system

This article represents a step toward generalizing and simplifying the procedure for constructing an inversion‐based seismic hazard source model for an interconnected fault system, including the specification of adjustable segmentation constraints. A very simple example is used to maximize understandability and to counter the notion that an...

Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; Page, Morgan T.

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Year Published: 2020

Earthquake early warning in Aotearoa New Zealand: A survey of public perspectives to guide warning system development

Earthquake early warning (EEW) can be used to detect earthquakes and provide advanced notification of strong shaking, allowing pre-emptive actions to be taken that not only benefit infrastructure but reduce injuries and fatalities. Currently Aotearoa New Zealand does not have a nationwide EEW system, so a survey of the public was undertaken to...

Becker, Julia S.; Potter, Sally H.; Vinnel, Lauren; Nakayachi, Kazuya; McBride, Sara; Johnston, David A.

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Year Published: 2020

Wildfire and landscape change

Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and...

Santi, Paul M.; Rengers, Francis K.

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Year Published: 2020

Detection and assessment of a large and potentially‐tsunamigenic periglacial landslide in Barry Arm, Alaska

The retreat of glaciers in response to global warming has the potential to trigger landslides in glaciated regions around the globe. Landslides that enter fjords or lakes can cause tsunamis, which endanger people and infrastructure far from the landslide itself. Here we document the ongoing movement of an unstable slope (total volume of 455...

Dai, Chunli; Higman, Bretwood; Lynett, Patrick J.; Jacquemart, Mylène; Howat, Ian; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Dufresne, Anja; Freymueller, Jeffery T.; Geertsema, Marten; Jones, Melissa Ward; Haeussler, Peter

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Year Published: 2020

Lava–water interaction and hydrothermal activity within the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Lava Flow Field, Iceland

Lava that erupted during the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland flowed into a proglacial river system, resulting in aqueous cooling of the lava and an ephemeral hydrothermal system. We carried out a monitoring study of this system from 2015 to 2018 to document the cooling of the lava over this time, using thermocouple measurements and data-...

Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lev, Einat; Rumpf, Mary (Elise); Hamilton, Christopher W.; Hoskuldsson, Armann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

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Year Published: 2020

Distribution of aseismic deformation along the central San Andreas and Calaveras Faults from differencing repeat airborne lidar

Fault creep reduces seismic hazard and serves as a window into plate boundary processes; however, creep rates are typically constrained with sparse measurements. We use differential lidar topography (11–13 year time span) to measure a spatially dense surface deformation field along a 150 km section of the Central San Andreas and...

Scott, Chelsea P; DeLong, Stephen B.; Arrosmith, J Ramon

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Year Published: 2020

Using a large-n seismic array to explore the robustness of spectral estimations

Spectral analysis is widely used to estimate and refine earthquake source parameters such as source radius, seismic moment, and stress drop. This study aims to quantify the precision of the single spectra and empirical Green's function spectral ratio approach using the Large‐n Seismic Survey in Oklahoma (LASSO) array. The dense station...

Kemna, K.B.; Pena Castro, A.F.; Harrington, R.M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

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Year Published: 2020

Injection‐induced earthquakes near Milan, Kansas, controlled by Karstic Networks

Induced earthquakes from waste disposal operations in otherwise tectonically stable regions significantly increases seismic hazard. It remains unclear why injections induce large earthquakes on non‐optimally oriented faults kilometers below the injection horizon, particularly since fluids are not injected under pressure, but rather poured, into...

Joubert, Charlene; Sohrabi, Reza; Rubinstein, Justin; Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A

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Year Published: 2020

Localized fault-zone dilatancy and surface inelasticity of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes

Earthquakes produce a spectrum of elastic and inelastic deformation processes that are reflected across various length and time scales. While elasticity has long dominated research assumptions in active tectonics, increasing interest has focused on the inelastic characteristics of earthquakes, particularly those of the surface fault rupture zone...

Barnhart, William D.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hollingsworth, James