Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,196
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Year Published: 2020

Landslides after wildfire: Initiation, magnitude, and mobility

In the semiarid Southwestern USA, wildfires are commonly followed by runoff-generated debris flows because wildfires remove vegetation and ground cover, which reduces soil infiltration capacity and increases soil erodibility. At a study site in Southern California, we initially observed runoff-generated debris flows in the first year following...

Rengers, Francis K.; McGuire, Luke; Oakley, Nina S.; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Tang, Hui

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Year Published: 2020

Ancient Martian aeolian sand dune deposits recorded in the stratigraphy of Valles Marineris and implications for past climates

Aeolian sediment transport, deposition, and erosion have been ongoing throughout Mars's history. This record of widespread aeolian processes is preserved in landforms and geologic units that retain important clues about past environmental conditions including wind patterns. In this study we describe landforms within Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris...

Chojnacki, Matthew; Fenton, Lori K.; Weintraub, Aaron R; Edgar, Lauren A.; Jodhpurkar, Mohini Jeetendra; Edwards, Christopher S.

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Year Published: 2020

Focused fluid flow along the Nootka Fault Zone and continental slope, Explorer-Juan de Fuca plate boundary

Geophysical and geochemical data indicate there is abundant fluid expulsion in the Nootka fault zone (NFZ) between the Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates and the Nootka continental slope. Here we combine observations from > 20 years of investigations to demonstrate the nature of fluid-flow along the NFZ, which is the seismically most active...

Riedel, M.; Rohr, K.M.M.; Spence, G.D.; Kelley, D.; Delaney, J.; Lapham, L.; Pohlman, John; Hyndman, R.D.; Willoughby, E.C.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismicity induced by massive wastewater injection near Puerto Gaitán, Colombia

Seven years after the beginning of a massive wastewater injection project in eastern Colombia, local earthquake activity increased significantly. The field operator and the Colombian Geological Survey immediately reinforced the monitoring of the area. Our analysis of the temporal evolution of the seismic and injection data together with our...

Molina, I; Velasquez, J.S.; Rubinstein, Justin; García-Aristizabal, A; Dionicio, V

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Year Published: 2020

Adjusted geomagnetic data—Theoretical basis and validation

Adjusted geomagnetic data are magnetometer measurements with provisional correction factors applied such that vector quantities are oriented in a local Cartesian frame in which the X axis points north, the Y axis points east, and the Z axis points down. These correction factors are determined from so-called absolute measurements, which are “ground...

Rigler, E. Joshua; Claycomb, Abram E.
Rigler, E.J., and Claycomb, A.E., 2020, Adjusted geomagnetic data—Theoretical basis and validation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1053, 19 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201053.

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Year Published: 2020

Laboratory electrical conductivity of marine gas hydrate

Methane hydrate was synthesized from pure water ice and flash frozen seawater, with varying amounts of sand or silt added. Electrical conductivity was determined by impedance spectroscopy, using equivalent circuit modeling to separate the effects of electrodes and to gain insight into conduction mechanisms. Silt and sand increase the conductivity...

Constable, Steven; Lu, Ryan; Stern, Laura A.; Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

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Year Published: 2020

A global shape model for Saturn's moon Enceladus from a dense photogrammetric control network

A planetary bodys global shape provides both insight into its geologic evolution, and a key element of any Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI). NASAs Cassini mission to Saturn acquired more than 600 moderate- to high-resolution images (< 500 m/pixel) of the small, geologically active moon Enceladus. The moons internal global ocean and...

Bland, Michael T.; Weller, Lynn A.; Mayer, David; Archinal, Brent

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Year Published: 2020

Localized fluid discharge by tensile cracking during the post-seismic period in subduction zones

It is thought that extensional structures (extensional cracks and normal faults) generated during the post-seismic period create fluid pathways that enhance the drainage of the subducting plate interface, thus reducing the pore pressure and increasing fault strength. However, it remains to be elucidated how much pore fluid pressure decreases by...

Otsubo, Makoto; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Miyakawa, Ayumu; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku

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Year Published: 2020

Coordination of planetary coordinate system recommendations by the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements–2020 status and future

Our goal is to request input from the lunar and planetary community regarding issues of planetary coordinate systems and cartography standards. We begin with an overview of the work of the International Astronomical Union Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements. We briefly describe the operations and membership of the...

Archinal, Brent; Acton, C. H.; Conrad, A.; Duxbury, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J. L.; Jorda, L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Klioner, S. A.; Margot, J.-L.; Oberst, J.; Paganelli, F.; Ping, J.; Seidelmann, K.; Tholen, D. J.; Williams, I. P.

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Year Published: 2020

Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model

The U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model (NCM) is being developed to include spatially varying estimates of site response in seismic hazard assessments. Primary outputs of the NCM are continuous velocity and density profiles from the Earth’s surface to the mantle transition zone at 410-kilometer (km) depth for each location on a 1-km grid...

Boyd, Oliver S.
Boyd, O.S., 2020, Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1052, 23 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201052.

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Year Published: 2020

Citizen science collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska

Citizen science is science undertaken by the public, usually in collaboration with professional scientific institutions. It encourages citizens to tackle real-world scientific problems and augments traditional science by expanding the coverage of data collection and by reducing costs of fieldwork in remote locations. Information collected by...

Powers, Elizabeth; Williams, Dee
Powers, E.M., and Williams, D.M., 2020, Citizen science collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020-3026, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203026.

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Year Published: 2020

Evidence for a diagenetic origin of Vera Rubin Ridge, Gale Crater, Mars: Summary and synthesis of Curiosity's exploration campaign

This paper provides an overview of the Curiosity rover's exploration at Vera Rubin ridge and summarizes the science results. Vera Rubin ridge (VRR) is a distinct geomorphic feature on lower Aeolis Mons (informally known as Mt. Sharp) that was identified in orbital data based on its distinct texture, topographic expression, and association with a...

Fraeman, Abigail A.; Edgar, Lauren A.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Frydenvang, Jens; Fedo, Christopher M.; Catalano, Jeff G.; Dietrich, William E.; Gabriel, Travis S. J.; Grotzinger, John P.; L'Haridon, Jonas; Mangold, Nicholas; Sun, Vivian Z.; House, Christopher H; Bryk, Alexander; Hardgrove, Craig; Czarnecki, Sean; Stack, Kathryn M.; Morris, Richard V.; Arvidson, Ray E.; Banham, Steve G.; Bennett, Kristen Alicia; Bridges, Jon C.; Edwards, Christopher S.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Fox, Valerie K.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Jacob, Sammantha R.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Sarah S.; Rubin, David R.; Salvatore, Mark R; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Siebach, Kirsten L.; Stein, Nathan T.; Turner, Stuart; Wellington, Danika F.; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Amy J.; Davidson, G.A.; Wong, Gregory M.