Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,459
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Year Published: 2021

Preface to the Focus Section on the 2020 Intermountain West earthquakes

The Intermountain West region of the United States extends from the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains in the west to the Rocky Mountains in the east. The region is characterized by dextral shear along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada and nearly east-west extension in the Basin and Range. This region experienced four...

Gold, Ryan D.; Bormann, Jayne; Koper, Keith D.

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Year Published: 2021

Forecasting induced earthquake hazard using a hydromechanical earthquake nucleation model

In response to the dramatic increase in earthquake rates in the central United States, the U.S Geological Survey began releasing 1 yr earthquake hazard models for induced earthquakes in 2016. Although these models have been shown to accurately forecast earthquake hazard, they rely purely on earthquake statistics because there was no precedent...

Rubinstein, Justin; Barbour, Andrew; Norbeck, Jack H

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Year Published: 2021

Airborne dust plumes lofted by dislodged ice blocks at Russell crater, Mars

Linear dune gullies on poleward‐facing Martian slopes are enigmatic. Formation by CO2‐ice block or snow cornice falls has been proposed based on optical imagery of bright, high‐albedo features inside gully channels. Because these features often resemble patchy frost residue rather than three‐dimensional blocks, more evidence is needed to support...

Dinwiddie, Cynthia; Titus, Timothy N.

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Year Published: 2021

Extreme Quaternary plate boundary exhumation and strike slip localized along the southern Fairweather fault, Alaska, USA

The Fairweather fault (southeastern Alaska, USA) is Earth’s fastest-slipping intracontinental strike-slip fault, but its long-term role in localizing Yakutat–(Pacific–)North America plate motion is poorly constrained. This plate boundary fault transitions northward from pure strike slip to transpression where it comes onshore and undergoes a <...

Lease, Richard O.; Haeussler, Peter; Witter, Robert C.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Bender, Adrian; Kelsey, Harvey; O'Sullivan, Paul

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Year Published: 2021

Amateur radio operators help fill earthquake donut holes

If you’ve ever seen tall antennas rising from everyday residences in your community and wondered what they are for, it could be that those homes belong to ham radio enthusiasts who enjoy communicating with each other over the airwaves. In addition to having fun with their radios and finding camaraderie, many ham radio operators are also...

Wald, David J.; Quitoriano, Vince; Dully, Oliver

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Year Published: 2021

A 100-km wide slump along the upper slope of the Canadian Arctic was likely preconditioned for failure by brackish pore water flushing

Exploration of the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea has revealed a remarkable coalescence of slide scars with headwalls between 130 and 1100 m water depth (mwd). With increased depth, the scars widen and merge into one gigantic regional slide scar that is more than 100 km wide below ~1100 mwd. To understand the...

Paull, C.K.; Dallimore, S.R.; Caress, D.W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Melling, H.; Jin, Y.K.; Duchesne, M.J.; Kang S-G.; Kim, S.; Riedel, M.; King, E.L.; Lorenson, Thomas

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Year Published: 2021

Evolution of fluid transmissivity and strength recovery of shear fractures under hydrothermal conditions

Geothermal systems rely on the presence of long-lived and high-volume, permeable fracture systems. The creation, reactivation, and sustainability of these systems depend on complex coupling among thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes occurring in geothermal reservoirs. In part due to a paucity of experimental data, the...

Jeppson, Tamara Nicole; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Taron, Joshua M.

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Year Published: 2021

Long-term changes in kelp forests in an inner basin of the Salish Sea

Kelp forests form an important biogenic habitat that responds to natural and human drivers. Global concerns exist about threats to kelp forests, yet long-term information is limited and research suggests that trends are geographically distinct. We examined distribution of the bull kelp Nereocystis luetkeana over 145 years in South Puget...

Berry, H.D.; Mumford, T.F.; Calloway, M.; Ferrier, L.; Christiaen, B.; vanArendonk, Nathan R.; Grossman, Eric E.; Dowty, P.

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Year Published: 2021

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mast camera zoom (Mastcam-Z) multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation

Mastcam-Z is a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation on the Mars 2020 mission’s Perseverance rover. Mastcam-Z consists of a pair of focusable, 4:1 zoomable cameras that provide broadband red/green/blue and narrowband 400-1000 nm color imaging with fields of view from 25.6° × 19.2° (26 mm focal length at 283 ...

Bell, J. F.; Maki, J. N.; Mehall, G. L.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Bailey, Z. J.; Brylow, S.; Schaffner, J. A.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Winhold, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Corlies, P.; Tate, C.; Barrington, M.; Cisneros, E.; Jensen, E.; Parise, Katy L.; Crawford, Kelon; Rojas, C.; Mehall, L.; Joseph, J.; Proton, J. B.; Cluff, N.; Deen, R. G.; Betts, B.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, Anthony; Edgett, K. S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hardgrove, C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Jaumann, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Paar, G.; Caballo-Perucha, M; Gupta, S.; Traxler, C; Preusker, F.; Rice, M. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Schmitz, N.; Sullivan, R.; Wolff, M. J.

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Year Published: 2021

The contribution of currents, sea-swell waves, and infragravity waves to suspended-sediment transport across a coral reef-lagoon system.

Coral reefs generate substantial volumes of carbonate sediment, which is redistributed throughout the reef‐lagoon system. However, there is little understanding of the specific processes that transport this sediment produced on the outer portions of coral reefs throughout a reef‐lagoon system. Furthermore, the separate contributions of currents,...

Pomeroy, Andrew; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lowe, Ryan; Hansen, Jeff; Buckley, Mark L.

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Year Published: 2021

Electrical conductivity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system

Electromagnetic geophysical methods image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is an intrinsic material property that is sensitive to temperature, composition, porosity, volatile and/or melt content, and other physical properties relevant to the solid Earth. Therefore, imaging the electrical structure of...

Naif, Samer; Selway, Kate; Murphy, Benjamin Scott; Egbert, Gary D.; Pommier, Anne

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Year Published: 2021

Forecasting the frequency and magnitude of postfire debris flows across southern California

Southern California has a long history of damaging debris flows after wildfire. Despite recurrent loss, forecasts of the frequency and magnitude of postfire debris flows are not available for the region like they are for earthquakes. Instead, debris flow hazards are typically assessed in a reactive manner after wildfires. Such assessments are...

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.