Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,467
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Year Published: 2021

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mast camera zoom (Mastcam-Z) multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation

Mastcam-Z is a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation on the Mars 2020 mission’s Perseverance rover. Mastcam-Z consists of a pair of focusable, 4:1 zoomable cameras that provide broadband red/green/blue and narrowband 400-1000 nm color imaging with fields of view from 25.6° × 19.2° (26 mm focal length at 283 ...

Bell, J. F.; Maki, J. N.; Mehall, G. L.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Bailey, Z. J.; Brylow, S.; Schaffner, J. A.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Winhold, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Corlies, P.; Tate, C.; Barrington, M.; Cisneros, E.; Jensen, E.; Parise, Katy L.; Crawford, Kelon; Rojas, C.; Mehall, L.; Joseph, J.; Proton, J. B.; Cluff, N.; Deen, R. G.; Betts, B.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, Anthony; Edgett, K. S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hardgrove, C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Jaumann, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Paar, G.; Caballo-Perucha, M; Gupta, S.; Traxler, C; Preusker, F.; Rice, M. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Schmitz, N.; Sullivan, R.; Wolff, M. J.

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Year Published: 2021

The contribution of currents, sea-swell waves, and infragravity waves to suspended-sediment transport across a coral reef-lagoon system.

Coral reefs generate substantial volumes of carbonate sediment, which is redistributed throughout the reef‐lagoon system. However, there is little understanding of the specific processes that transport this sediment produced on the outer portions of coral reefs throughout a reef‐lagoon system. Furthermore, the separate contributions of currents,...

Pomeroy, Andrew; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lowe, Ryan; Hansen, Jeff; Buckley, Mark L.

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Year Published: 2021

Electrical conductivity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system

Electromagnetic geophysical methods image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is an intrinsic material property that is sensitive to temperature, composition, porosity, volatile and/or melt content, and other physical properties relevant to the solid Earth. Therefore, imaging the electrical structure of...

Naif, Samer; Selway, Kate; Murphy, Benjamin Scott; Egbert, Gary D.; Pommier, Anne

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Year Published: 2021

Forecasting the frequency and magnitude of postfire debris flows across southern California

Southern California has a long history of damaging debris flows after wildfire. Despite recurrent loss, forecasts of the frequency and magnitude of postfire debris flows are not available for the region like they are for earthquakes. Instead, debris flow hazards are typically assessed in a reactive manner after wildfires. Such assessments are...

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.

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Year Published: 2021

Modern Mars' geomorphological activity, driven by wind, frost, and gravity

Extensive evidence of landform-scale martian geomorphic changes has been acquired in the last decade, and the number and range of examples of surface activity have increased as more high-resolution imagery has been acquired. Within the present-day Mars climate, wind and frost/ice are the dominant drivers, resulting in large avalanches of material...

Diniega, Serina; Bramson, Ali M; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Buhler, Peter; Burr, Devon M; Chojnacki, Matthew; Conway, Susan J.; Dundas, Colin M.; Hansen, Candice J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Lapotre, Mathieu G.A.; Levy, Joseph S.; McKeown, Lauren; Piqueux, Sylvain; Portyankina, Ganna; Swann, Christy; Titus, Timothy N.; Widmer, Jacob

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Year Published: 2021

Characterizing fault roughness—Are faults rougher at long or short wavelengths?

Changes in fault roughness with scale, “scaling,” is the topic of this report; changes are considered using a general power law relation between some measure of surface height, H, and another of length, L, H=kLn, where k is a constant and n is an exponent that characterizes the scaling. Extensive profile measurements of natural fault surfaces show...

Beeler, Nicholas M.
Beeler, N.M., 2021, Characterizing fault roughness—Are faults rougher at long or short wavelengths?: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1134, 15 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201134.

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Year Published: 2021

Field response and surface rupture characteristics of the 2020 M6.5 Monte Cristo Range earthquake, central Walker Lane, Nevada

The M 6.5 Monte Cristo Range earthquake that occurred in the central Walker Lane on 15 May 2020 was the largest earthquake in Nevada in 66 yr and resulted in a multidisciplinary scientific field response. The earthquake was the result of left‐lateral slip along largely unmapped parts of the Candelaria fault, one of a series of east–...

Koehler, Richard D; Dee, Seth; Elliott, Austin John; Hatem, Alexandra Elise; Pickering, Alexandra; Pierce, Ian; Seitz, Gordon G.

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Year Published: 2021

Widespread exposures of extensive clean shallow ice in the mid-latitudes of Mars

Although ice in the Martian midlatitudes is typically covered by a layer of dust or regolith, it is exposed in some locations by fresh impact craters or in erosional scarps. In both cases, the exposed ice is massive or excess ice with a low lithic content. We find that erosional scarps occur between 50° and 61° north and south latitude and that...

Dundas, Colin M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Conway, Susan J.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Williams, Kaj; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Bramson, Ali; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.; Posiolova, Liliya; Speth, Gunnar; Viola, Donna; Landis, Margaret E.; Morgan, Gareth A; Pathare, Asmin V

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Year Published: 2021

Quantifying nuisance ground motion thresholds for induced earthquakes

Hazards from induced earthquakes are a growing concern with a need for effective management. One aspect of that concern is the “nuisance” from unexpected ground motions, which have the potential to cause public alarm and discontent. In this article, we borrow earthquake engineering concepts to quantify the chance of building damage states and...

Schultz, Ryan; Quitoriano, Vince; Wald, David J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

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Year Published: 2021

An assessment of vertical land movement to support coastal hazards planning in Washington state

The sea and land change elevation spatially and temporally from a multitude of processes, so it is necessary to constrain the movement of both to evaluate how coastlines will evolve and how those evolving coastlines will impact the natural and built environment over time. We combine land movement observations from global navigation satellite...

Newton, Tyler; Weldon, Ray; Miller, Ian M.; Schmidt, David; Morgan, Harriet; Grossman, Eric; Mauger, Guillaume S

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Year Published: 2021

Onshore flow characteristics of the 1755 CE Lisbon tsunami: Linking forward and inverse numerical modeling

The 1755 CE Lisbon earthquake triggered the largest historical tsunami ever impacting the Atlantic coasts of Europe. Despite recent efforts to better understand this event, there are still unanswered questions about the location of its epicenter and whether physical and historical evidences are in agreement.Inverse modeling using tsunami sediments...

Bosnic, Ivana; Costa, Pedro JM; Dourado, Francisco; La Selle, Seanpaul; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.

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Year Published: 2021

Coseismic surface displacement in the 2019 ridgecrest earthquakes: Comparison of field measurements and optical image correlation results

A fundamental topic in earthquake studies is understanding the extent to which fault rupture at the surface is localized on primary fault strands as opposed to distributed tens to hundreds of meters away from primary ruptures through off‐fault deformation (OFD) via a combination of discrete secondary faulting and bulk deformation. The 2019...

Gold, Ryan D.; Duross, Christopher; Barnhart, William D.