Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,287
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Year Published: 2020

Peak ground velocity spatial variability revealed by dense seismic array in southern California

Understanding and modeling variability of ground motion is essential for building accurate and precise ground motion prediction equations, which can net site‐specific characterization and reduced hazard levels. Here, we explore the spatial variability in peak ground velocity (PGV) at Sage Brush Flats along the San Jacinto Fault in southern...

Johnson, Christopher E; Kilb, Debi; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Vernon, Frank

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Year Published: 2020

Submarine canyons, slope failures and mass transport processes in southern Cascadia

The marine turbidite record along the southern Cascadia Subduction Zone has been used to interpret paleoseismicity and suggest a shorter recurrence interval for large (>M7) earthquakes along this portion of the margin; however, the sources and pathways of these turbidity flows are poorly constrained. We examine the spatial distribution of...

Hill, Jenna C.; Watt, Janet; Brothers, Daniel; Kluesner, Jared

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Year Published: 2020

Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption

Mount St. Helens was once enjoyed for its serene beauty and was considered one of America’s most majestic volcanoes because of its perfect cone shape, similar to Japan’s beloved Mount Fuji. Nearby residents assumed that the mountain was solid and enduring. That perception changed during the early spring of 1980. Then, on May 18, 1980,...

Driedger, Carolyn L.; Major, Jon J.; Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Moran, Seth C.; Westby, Elizabeth G.; Ewert, John W.
Driedger, C.L., Major, J.J., Pallister, J.S., Clynne, M.A., Moran, S.C., Westby, E.G., and Ewert, J.W., 2020, Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020-3031, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203031.

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Year Published: 2020

Late Quaternary slip rates on the Sierra Madre fault zone and paleoseismic evidence on the size and frequency of past ruptures

The Sierra Madre fault zone is a south-vergent, active reverse fault that accommodates shortening between basins on the northern margin of the Los Angeles region and the San Gabriel Mountains. The preservation of late Quaternary alluvial fill and fan surfaces in the hanging wall of the fault provides evidence of long-term uplift. Surface rupture...

Burgette, Reed; Scharer, Katherine; Lindvall, Scott

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Year Published: 2020

Abundant spontaneous and dynamically triggered submarine landslides in the Gulf of Mexico

Submarine landslides that occur offshore are common along the U.S. continental margins. These mass wasting events can trigger tsunamis and hence potentially devastate coastal communities and damage offshore infrastructure. However, the initiation and failure processes of submarine landslides are poorly understood. Here, we identify and locate 85...

Fan, Wenyuan; McGuire, Jeffrey; Shearer, Peter M.

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Year Published: 2020

Active steady-state creep on a nontectonic normal fault in southeast Utah: Implications for strain release in a rapidly deforming salt system

Characterizing short-term temporal variations of fault creep provides insight into the evolution, mechanics, and strength of fault systems. Using spirit leveling and an extensome- ter, we measured surface displacement of a fault southwest of the Needles District, Canyon- lands National Park, Utah, where extension is driven by differential...

Kravitz, Katherine; Mueller, Karl; Bilham, Roger; Walton, Maureen A. L.

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Year Published: 2020

Ground failure triggered by shaking during the November 30, 2018, magnitude 7.1 Anchorage, Alaska, earthquake

We developed an initial inventory of ground failure features from the November 30, 2018, magnitude 7.1 Anchorage earthquake. This inventory of 153 features is from ground-based observations soon after the earthquake (December 5–10) that include the presence or absence of liquefaction, landslides, and individual crack traces of lateral spreads and...

Grant, Alex R. R. ; Jibson, Randall W.; Witter, Robert C.; Allstadt, Kate E.; Thompson, Eric M.; Bender, Adrian M.
Grant, A.R.R., Jibson, R.W., Witter, R.C., Allstadt, K.E., Thompson, E.M., and Bender, A.M., 2020, Ground failure triggered by shaking during the November 30, 2018, magnitude 7.1 Anchorage, Alaska, earthquake: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1043, 21 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201043.

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Year Published: 2020

Sparse subsurface radar reflectors in Hellas Planitia, Mars

Geomorphological features potentially related to subsurface ice, such as scalloped depressions, expanded craters, pedestal craters, and banded terrain, are present in and around Hellas Planitia, Mars. We present a radar survey of the region using the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to identify...

Cook, Claire W; Bramson, Ali M; Byrne, Shane; Holt, John W; Christoffersen, Michael S; Viola, Donna; Dundas, Colin M.; Goudge, Timothy A

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Year Published: 2020

Geometric and material variability influences stress states relevant to coastal permafrost bluff failure

Scientific knowledge and engineering tools for predicting coastal erosion are largely confined to temperate climate zones that are dominated by non-cohesive sediments. The pattern of erosion exhibited by the ice-bonded permafrost bluffs in Arctic Alaska, however, is not well explained by these tools. Investigation of the oceanographic, thermal,...

Thomas, Matthew A.; Mota, Alejandro; Jones, Benjamin M.; Choens, R. Charles; Frederick, Jennifer M.; Bull, Diana L.

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Year Published: 2020

Aseismic transient slip on the Gofar transform fault, East Pacific Rise

Oceanic transform faults display a unique combination of seismic and aseismic slip behavior, including a large globally averaged seismic deficit, and the local occurrence of repeating magnitude (M) ∼6">∼6∼6 earthquakes with abundant foreshocks and seismic swarms, as on the Gofar transform of the East Pacific Rise and the...

Liu, Yajing; McGuire, Jeffrey; Behn, Mark

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Year Published: 2020

The influence of frequency and duration of seismic ground motion on the size of triggered landslides—A regional view

Observation, theory, and intuition all suggest that larger earthquakes should trigger larger landslides. Many factors could contribute to this, including depth-dependent shear strength or non-linearity of ground motion in soils and rock, but we hypothesize that the key characteristics of large earthquakes causing this phenomenon are (in addition...

Jibson, Randall W.; Tanyaş, Hakan

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Year Published: 2020

2018 U.S. Geological Survey–California Geological Survey fault-imaging surveys across the Hollywood and Santa Monica Faults, Los Angeles County, California

We acquired multiple types of seismic data across the Hollywood Fault in Hollywood, Calif., and the Santa Monica Fault in Beverly Hills, Calif., in May and June 2018. On the basis of our data, we infer near-surface locations of various traces of these faults.From two separate profiles across the Hollywood Fault, we evaluated multiple seismic...

Catchings, Rufus D.; Hernandez, Janis; Goldman, Mark R.; Chan, Joanne H.; Sickler, Robert R.; Olson, Brian; Criley, Coyn J.
Catchings, R.D., Hernandez, J., Goldman, M.R., Chan, J.H., Sickler, R.R., Olson, B., and Criley, C.J., 2020, 2018 U.S. Geological Survey–California Geological Survey fault-imaging surveys across the Hollywood and Santa Monica Faults, Los Angeles County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1049, 42 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201049.