Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,467
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Year Published: 2020

Geologic map of Jezero crater and the Nili Planum region, Mars

The cratered highlands located northwest of Isidis Planitia have been recognized as one of the best preserved Noachian landscapes currently exposed on Mars; the area hosts a record of diverse surface processes, diagenesis, and aqueous alteration. This region has consistently been considered a high priority for landed-mission exploration and...

Sun, Vivian Z.; Stack, Kathryn M.
Sun, V.Z., and Stack, K.M., 2020, Geologic map of Jezero crater and the Nili Planum region, Mars: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3464, pamphlet 14 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:75,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3464.

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Year Published: 2020

Planetary cave exploration progresses

Planetary caves have been identified on the Moon and on Mars, and are likely to occur across the Solar System. They present a new frontier for planetary science, subsurface astrobiology, geology and human exploration. The fourth in a series of scientific meetings focusing on the science and exploration of planetary caves brought together 55...

Titus, Timothy N.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Boston, P. J.; Wynne, J. J.; Kerber, L.

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Year Published: 2020

Sphalerite oxidation in seawater with covellite: Implications for seafloor massive sulfide deposits and mine waste

Metal sulfide minerals exist in several marine environments and are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with oxygenated seawater from the time of their formation. Oxidation is both ubiquitous and heterogeneous, as observational and experimental evidence demonstrates that sulfide minerals may oxidize completely on decadal timescales (hydrothermal...

Gartman, Amy; Whisman, Samantha P.; Hein, James R.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic attenuation monitoring of a critically stressed San Andreas fault

We show that seismic attenuation ( ) along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at Parkfield correlates with the occurrence of moderate‐to‐large earthquakes at local and regional distances. Earthquake‐related  anomalies are likely caused by changes in permeability from dilatant static stress changes, damage by strong shaking from local...

Malagnini, Luca; Parsons, Thomas E.

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Year Published: 2020

Ensemble ShakeMaps for magnitude 9 earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone

We develop ensemble ShakeMaps for various magnitude 9 (⁠M">MM 9) earthquakes on the Cascadia megathrust. Ground‐shaking estimates are based on 30 M">MM 9 Cascadia earthquake scenarios, which were selected using a logic‐tree approach that varied the hypocenter location, down‐dip rupture limit, slip distribution, and location of...

Wirth, Erin; Grant, Alex R. R. ; Marafi, Nasser A.; Frankel, Arthur

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Year Published: 2020

Generalizing the inversion‐based PSHA source model for an interconnected fault system

This article represents a step toward generalizing and simplifying the procedure for constructing an inversion‐based seismic hazard source model for an interconnected fault system, including the specification of adjustable segmentation constraints. A very simple example is used to maximize understandability and to counter the notion that an...

Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; Page, Morgan T.

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Year Published: 2020

Earthquake early warning in Aotearoa New Zealand: A survey of public perspectives to guide warning system development

Earthquake early warning (EEW) can be used to detect earthquakes and provide advanced notification of strong shaking, allowing pre-emptive actions to be taken that not only benefit infrastructure but reduce injuries and fatalities. Currently Aotearoa New Zealand does not have a nationwide EEW system, so a survey of the public was undertaken to...

Becker, Julia S.; Potter, Sally H.; Vinnel, Lauren; Nakayachi, Kazuya; McBride, Sara; Johnston, David A.

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Year Published: 2020

Focused fluid flow and methane venting along the Queen Charlotte fault, offshore Alaska (USA) and British Columbia (Canada)

Fluid seepage along obliquely deforming plate boundaries can be an important indicator of crustal permeability and influence on fault-zone mechanics and hydrocarbon migration. The ~850-km-long Queen Charlotte fault (QCF) is the dominant structure along the right-lateral transform boundary that separates the Pacific and North American tectonic...

Prouty, Nancy G.; Brothers, Daniel; Kluesner, Jared; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Andrews, Brian D.; Lauer, Rachel; Greene, Gary; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, Thomas; Law, Michael D.; Sahy, Diana; Conway, Kim; McGann, Mary; Dartnell, Peter

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Year Published: 2020

Wildfire and landscape change

Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and...

Santi, Paul M.; Rengers, Francis K.

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Year Published: 2020

Detection and assessment of a large and potentially‐tsunamigenic periglacial landslide in Barry Arm, Alaska

The retreat of glaciers in response to global warming has the potential to trigger landslides in glaciated regions around the globe. Landslides that enter fjords or lakes can cause tsunamis, which endanger people and infrastructure far from the landslide itself. Here we document the ongoing movement of an unstable slope (total volume of 455...

Dai, Chunli; Higman, Bretwood; Lynett, Patrick J.; Jacquemart, Mylène; Howat, Ian; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Dufresne, Anja; Freymueller, Jeffery T.; Geertsema, Marten; Jones, Melissa Ward; Haeussler, Peter

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Year Published: 2020

Lava–water interaction and hydrothermal activity within the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Lava Flow Field, Iceland

Lava that erupted during the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland flowed into a proglacial river system, resulting in aqueous cooling of the lava and an ephemeral hydrothermal system. We carried out a monitoring study of this system from 2015 to 2018 to document the cooling of the lava over this time, using thermocouple measurements and data-...

Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lev, Einat; Rumpf, Mary (Elise); Hamilton, Christopher W.; Hoskuldsson, Armann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

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Year Published: 2020

Distribution of aseismic deformation along the central San Andreas and Calaveras Faults from differencing repeat airborne lidar

Fault creep reduces seismic hazard and serves as a window into plate boundary processes; however, creep rates are typically constrained with sparse measurements. We use differential lidar topography (11–13 year time span) to measure a spatially dense surface deformation field along a 150 km section of the Central San Andreas and...

Scott, Chelsea P; DeLong, Stephen B.; Arrosmith, J Ramon