Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,512
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Year Published: 2020

Wildfire and landscape change

Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and...

Santi, Paul M.; Rengers, Francis K.

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Year Published: 2020

Detection and assessment of a large and potentially‐tsunamigenic periglacial landslide in Barry Arm, Alaska

The retreat of glaciers in response to global warming has the potential to trigger landslides in glaciated regions around the globe. Landslides that enter fjords or lakes can cause tsunamis, which endanger people and infrastructure far from the landslide itself. Here we document the ongoing movement of an unstable slope (total volume of 455...

Dai, Chunli; Higman, Bretwood; Lynett, Patrick J.; Jacquemart, Mylène; Howat, Ian; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Dufresne, Anja; Freymueller, Jeffery T.; Geertsema, Marten; Jones, Melissa Ward; Haeussler, Peter

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Year Published: 2020

Lava–water interaction and hydrothermal activity within the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Lava Flow Field, Iceland

Lava that erupted during the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland flowed into a proglacial river system, resulting in aqueous cooling of the lava and an ephemeral hydrothermal system. We carried out a monitoring study of this system from 2015 to 2018 to document the cooling of the lava over this time, using thermocouple measurements and data-...

Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lev, Einat; Rumpf, Mary (Elise); Hamilton, Christopher W.; Hoskuldsson, Armann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

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Year Published: 2020

Distribution of aseismic deformation along the central San Andreas and Calaveras Faults from differencing repeat airborne lidar

Fault creep reduces seismic hazard and serves as a window into plate boundary processes; however, creep rates are typically constrained with sparse measurements. We use differential lidar topography (11–13 year time span) to measure a spatially dense surface deformation field along a 150 km section of the Central San Andreas and...

Scott, Chelsea P; DeLong, Stephen B.; Arrosmith, J Ramon

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Year Published: 2020

Geomorphic and sedimentary effects of modern climate change: Current and anticipated future conditions in the western United States

Hydroclimatic changes associated with global warming over the past 50 years have been documented widely, but physical landscape responses are poorly understood thus far. Detecting sedimentary and geomorphic signals of modern climate change presents challenges owing to short record lengths, difficulty resolving signals in stochastic natural systems...

East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.

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Year Published: 2020

Spectral wave-driven bedload transport across a coral reef flat/lagoon complex

Coral reefs are an important source of sediment for reef-lined coasts by helping to maintain beaches while also providing protection in the form of wave energy dissipation. Understanding the mechanisms by which sediment is delivered to the coast as well as better constraining the total volumes generated are critical for projecting future coastal...

Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia; Pomeroy, Andrew; Hansen, Jeff E.; Lowe, Ryan; Buckley, Mark

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Year Published: 2020

Using a large-n seismic array to explore the robustness of spectral estimations

Spectral analysis is widely used to estimate and refine earthquake source parameters such as source radius, seismic moment, and stress drop. This study aims to quantify the precision of the single spectra and empirical Green's function spectral ratio approach using the Large‐n Seismic Survey in Oklahoma (LASSO) array. The dense station...

Kemna, K.B.; Pena Castro, A.F.; Harrington, R.M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

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Year Published: 2020

Modeling three-dimensional flow over spur-and-groove morphology

Spur-and-groove (SAG) morphology characterizes the fore reef of many coral reefs worldwide. Although the existence and geometrical properties of SAG have been well documented, an understanding of the hydrodynamics over them is limited. Here, the three-dimensional flow patterns over SAG formations, and a sensitivity of those patterns to waves,...

da Silva, Renan; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rogers, Justin S.; Reyns, Johan; McCall, Robert T.

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Year Published: 2020

Injection‐induced earthquakes near Milan, Kansas, controlled by Karstic Networks

Induced earthquakes from waste disposal operations in otherwise tectonically stable regions significantly increases seismic hazard. It remains unclear why injections induce large earthquakes on non‐optimally oriented faults kilometers below the injection horizon, particularly since fluids are not injected under pressure, but rather poured, into...

Joubert, Charlene; Sohrabi, Reza; Rubinstein, Justin; Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A

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Year Published: 2020

Localized fault-zone dilatancy and surface inelasticity of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes

Earthquakes produce a spectrum of elastic and inelastic deformation processes that are reflected across various length and time scales. While elasticity has long dominated research assumptions in active tectonics, increasing interest has focused on the inelastic characteristics of earthquakes, particularly those of the surface fault rupture zone...

Barnhart, William D.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hollingsworth, James

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic reflection imaging of the low-angle Panamint normal fault system, eastern California

Shallowly dipping (<30°) low‐angle normal faults (LANFs) have been documented globally; however, examples of active LANFs in continental settings are limited. The western margin of the Panamint Range in eastern California is defined by a LANF that dips west beneath Panamint Valley and has evidence of Quaternary motion. In addition, high‐angle...

Gold, Ryan D.; Stephenson, William J.; Briggs, Richard W.; Duross, Christopher; Kirby, Eric; Woolery, Edward W; Delano, Jaime; Odum, Jackson K.

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Year Published: 2020

Identifying the greatest earthquakes of the past 2000 years at the Nehalem River Estuary, Northern Oregon Coast, USA

We infer a history of three great megathrust earthquakes during the past 2000 years at the Nehalem River estuary based on the lateral extent of sharp (≤3 mm) peat-mud stratigraphic contacts in cores and outcrops, coseismic subsidence as interpreted from fossil diatom assemblages and reconstructed with foraminiferal assemblages using a Bayesian...

Nelson, Alan R.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Sawai, Yuki; Engelhart, Simon E.; Witter, Robert C.; Grant-Walter, Wendy C.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Dura, Tina; Cahill, Niamh; Horton, Benajamin P.