Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,516
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Year Published: 2020

Littoral sediment from rivers: Patterns, rates and processes of river mouth morphodynamics

Rivers provide important sediment inputs to many littoral cells, thereby replenishing sand and gravel of beaches around the world. However, there is limited information about the patterns and processes of littoral-grade sediment transfer from rivers into coastal systems. Here I address these information gaps by examining topographic and...

Warrick, Jonathan

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Year Published: 2020

Sediment export and impacts associated with river delta channelization compound estuary vulnerability to sea-level rise, Skagit River Delta, Washington, USA

Improved understanding of the budget and retention of sediment in river deltas is becoming increasingly important to mitigate and plan for impacts expected with sea level rise. In this study, analyses of historical bathymetric change, sediment core stratigraphy, and modeling are used to evaluate the sediment budget and environmental response of...

Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Dartnell, Peter; George, Doug A; Finlayson, David

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Year Published: 2020

Forecasting for a fractured land: A case study of the communication and use of aftershock forecasts from the Mw 7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake in Aotearoa New Zealand

Operational earthquake forecasts (OEFs) are represented as time‐dependent probabilities of future earthquake hazard and risk. These probabilities can be presented in a variety of formats, including tables, maps, and text‐based scenarios. In countries such as Aotearoa New Zealand, the U.S., and Japan, OEFs have been released by scientific...

Becker, Julia S.; Potter, Sally H.; McBride, Sara; Hudson-Doyle, Emma E.; Gerstenberger, Matthew; Christopherson, Anne-Marie

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Year Published: 2020

The effects of phosphatization on the mineral associations and speciation of Pb in ferromanganese crusts

The older layers of thick ferromanganese (FeMn) crusts from the central Pacific Ocean have undergone diagenetic phosphatization, during which carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) filled fractures and pore space and replaced carbonates. The effects of phosphatization on individual trace metal concentrations, speciation, and phase associations in FeMn...

Mizell, Kira; Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Hayes, Sarah M.

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Year Published: 2020

Mars orbiter for resources, ices, and environments (MORIE)

The MORIE mission concept study examined the science and technical trade space to address high priority questions related to ice reservoirs and environmental transitions. The study team converged on a medium-class SEP-enabled orbiter with seven instruments to unlock the extent and volume of subsurface ice and geologic sequence stratigraphy through...

Calvin, Wendy M.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Holt, John W; Bramson, Ali M; Dundas, Colin M.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Morgan, Gareth A; Murchie, Scott L.; Patterson, G Wesley; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Sizemore, Hanna G; Matousek, Steve; Woolley, Ryan; Brinoccolo, Carlos; Scott, Valerie; Stuurman, Cassie; Wheeler, Kevin; Sutin, Brian; Lane, Marc; Barba, Nathan; Gontijo, Ivair; Park, Katherine; Burgin, Mariko; Hensley, Scott; Martin, Jan; Biancone, Jean; Hinkle, David; Insua, Barbara

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Year Published: 2020

Compositional layering in Io driven by magmatic segregation and volcanism

The compositional evolution of volcanic bodies like Io is not well understood. Magmatic segregation and volcanic eruptions transport tidal heat from Io's interior to its surface. Several observed eruptions appear to be extremely high temperature (≥ 1600 K), suggesting either very high degrees of melting, refractory source regions, or intensive...

Spencer, Dan C; Katz, Richard F.; Hewitt, Ian J.; May, David A.; Kestay, Laszlo P.

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Year Published: 2020

Developing post-alert messaging for ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the United States of America

As ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the U.S., begins its transition to operational public alerting, we explore how post-alert messaging might represent system performance. Planned post-alert messaging can provide timely, crucial information to both emergency managers and ShakeAlert operators as well as...

McBride, Sara; Bostrom, Ann; Sutton, Jeannette; deGroot, Robert Michael; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Terbush, Brian; Bodin, Paul; Dixon, Maximilian; Holland, Emily; Arba, Ryan; Laustsen, Paul C.; Liu, Sophia; Vinci, Margaret

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Year Published: 2020

Measuring basal force fluctuations of debris flows using seismic recordings and empirical green's functions

We present a novel method for measuring the fluctuating basal normal and shear stresses of debris flows by using along‐channel seismic recordings. Our method couples a simple parameterization of a debris flow as a seismic source with direct measurements of seismic path effects using empirical Green's functions generated with a force hammer. We...

Allstadt, Kate; Farin, Maxime; Iverson, Richard M.; Obryk, Maciej; Kean, Jason W.; Tsai, Victor C.; Rapstine, Thomas D; Logan, Matthew

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Year Published: 2020

Hydrothermal alteration on composite volcanoes: Mineralogy, hyperspectral imaging and aeromagnetic study of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

Prolonged volcanic activity can induce surface weathering and hydrothermal alteration that is a primary control on edifice instability, posing a complex hazard with its challenges to accurately forecast and mitigate. This study uses a frequently active composite volcano, Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand, to develop a conceptual model of surface weathering...

Kereszturi, Gabor; Schaefer, Lauren Nicole; Miller, Craig A.; Mead, Stuart

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Year Published: 2020

Evaluating stereo DTM quality at Jezero Crater, Mars with HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE images

We have used a high-precision, high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) of the NASA Mars 2020 rover Perseverance landing site in Jezero crater based on mosaicked images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) camera as a reference dataset to evaluate DTMs based on Mars Express High...

Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.; Smith, Ethan; Mayer, David; Hare, Trent M.; Gwinner, Klaus

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Year Published: 2020

The recurrence interval of post-fire debris-flow generating rainfall in the southwestern United States

In the southwestern United States, post-fire debris flows commonly initiate during short bursts of intense rainfall. To date, the frequency of the rainfall rates has not been quantified. Here, we combine an existing database of debris-flow occurrences and corresponding peak storm intensities with a geospatial library of rainfall recurrence...

Staley, Dennis M.; Kean, Jason W.; Rengers, Francis K.

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Year Published: 2020

Research is needed to inform environmental management of hydrothermally inactive and extinct polymetallic sulfide (PMS) deposits

Polymetallic sulfide (PMS) deposits produced at hydrothermal vents in the deep sea are of potential interest to miners. Hydrothermally active sulfide ecosystems are valued for the extraordinary chemosynthetic communities that they support. Many countries, including Canada, Portugal, and the United States, protect vent ecosystems in their Exclusive...

Van Dover, CL; Colaco, Ana; Collins, PC; Croot, P; Metaxas, Anna; Murton, BJ; Swaddling, A; Boschen-Rose, R; Carlsson, J; Cuyvers, L; Fukushima, Toshio; Gartman, Amy; Kennedy, R.; Kriete, C; Mestre, NC; Molodtsova, T; Myhrvold, A; Pelleter, E; Popoola, SO; Qian, P-Y; Sarrazin, J; Sharma, R; Suh, YJ; Sylvan, JB; Tao, Chunhui; Tomczak, Michal; Vermilye, J