Volcano Hazards Program Office

Data and Tools

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Date published: June 9, 2020

Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy data acquired during the 2018 rift eruption of Kīlauea Volcano

A fissure eruption occurred in Kīlauea Volcano’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) from April to September 2018. During this event, volcanic gases were emitted from three active areas on the volcano. The most intense degassing occurred at the active fissures in the LERZ, thus causing parts of Hawaiʻi Island’s Puna district to be exposed to life-threatening sulfur dioxi

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

Summary: Siliceous sinter samples were collected from multiple geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in 2018. These geyserite samples were collected and analyzed as a part of a multi-year research investigation into the age and geochemistry of hydrothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. Samples were collected along the stratigraphy of each feature. From these...

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: beryllium isotope data

Sample Collection:Field work was conducted in November 2018 in the Upper Geyser Basin. Three sinter samples were collected from Castle Geyser and one sinter sample was collected from Solitary Geyser. At Castle Geyser, an effort was made to identify stable surfaces associated with the oldest exposed stratigraphic levels of sinter deposition, in order to target material emplaced during early

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: uranium and thorium isotope data

Sample Analyses: Four samples of silica sinter from Giant and Castle Geysers compo sedof opal-A or opal-A/C were analyzed for U-Th isotopes at USGS laboratories in Denver, CO (https://www.usgs.gov/centers/gecsc/science/denver-radiogenic-isotope-lab...)....

Date published: May 27, 2020

SEM Images of Thin Sections of Sinter Samples from the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park (2019)

Sample Analyses: Thin sections made at UC Berkeley were brought to the USGS, Menlo Park, CA and were coated with 25 nm carbon. Samples were analyzed at the USGS in Menlo Park, CA in a Tescan VEGA3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Oxford 50 mm2 X-MaxN energy dispersive spectrometer. Thin sections were imaged with backscatter electrons. Database Contents: The data

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: carbon isotope data

Note: No formal accuracy tests were conducted and these data are disseminated to allow discussion related to methods. Sample Analyses: Samples were processed at both the USGS in Menlo Park, CA, and at UC Berkeley following established methodology for separating organic material from sinter (Howald et al., 2014; Lowenstern et al., 2016; Slagter et al., 2019). First, the ex

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: X-ray diffraction data

Sample Analyses: X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) was carried out on samples UGB-TD-24 through UGB-TD-39 at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, CA. Each sample was powdered using an agate mortar and pestle and packed into a shallow well (0.5 mm) aluminum XRPD mount with the knife edge of a spatula to ensure random orientation. Samples were scanned continuously at room temperature

Date published: May 27, 2020

Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy of Thin Sections of Sinter Samples from the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park (2019)

Sample Analyses: Thin sections made at UC Berkeley were brought to the USGS, Menlo Park, CA and were coated with 25 nm carbon. Samples were analyzed at the USGS in Menlo Park, CA in a Tescan VEGA3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Oxford 50 mm2 X-MaxN energy dispersive spectrometer. Thin sections were imaged with backscatter electrons. Energy dispersive X-ray spectro

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) data

Sample Analysis: Cation concentration data was obtained as a part of the beryllium isotope analyses. Samples collected from the Upper Geyser Basin were first treated in clean laboratory facilities at the University of New Hampshire following the methods laid out in the “Beryllium Isotope Data” portion of this data release. Following the hydrofluoric acid (HF) etches, and p

Date published: May 27, 2020

SEM Images of Sinter Samples from the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park (2019)

Sample Analyses: Unpolished bulk centimeter-scale sinter sub-samples were affixed to aluminum stubs using amorphous carbon paste and coated with 10 nm Au-Pd. Samples were analyzed at the USGS in Menlo Park, CA in a Tescan VEGA3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Stub-mount samples were imaged with secondary electrons. Database Contents: The data files for “SEM Images”

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data

Sample Analyses: Samples were analyzed for their trace element chemistry using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the Corman Center for Mass Spectrometry, Rensselaer Polytechnical Institute, New York. After XRF concentrations were determined following the methods laid out in the “X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)” portion of this data r

Date published: May 27, 2020

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: X-ray fluorescence data

Sample Analyses: Samples were analyzed for major and trace element concentrations of the unreacted and reacted sinter using a Thermo ARL Perform’X X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer at the Hamilton Analytical Laboratory at Hamilton College, New York, following protocols described in Johnson et al. (1999). One-part powdered sample is mixed with 2 parts Li-tetraborate flux