Volcano Hazards Program Office

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Ash-covered summit of Mount St. Helens. Aerial view looking north-n...
March 30, 1980

Ash-covered summit of Mount St. Helens. Aerial view looking north-N...

Ash covered snow is a result of wind direction, resulting in left portion of cone free of ash while the right portion is covered. Snowstorms later covered these ash layers, which in turn were covered by new ash. The result was many alternating layers of snow and ash.

View from the northwest of a phreatic eruption on Mount St. Helens ...
March 30, 1980

Phreatic eruption on Mount St. Helens pre-May 18, 1981

View from the northwest of a phreatic eruption on Mount St. Helens pre- May 18, 1980 eruption.

Crater in Mount St. Helens summit, aerial view looking east....
March 27, 1980

Crater in Mount St. Helens summit and ash (swath of dark) distribut...

An east-west fault across middle of summit area and an uplift or bulge on upper north flank of the volcano are also visible in this photo.

Upper cone of Mount St. Helens before the May 18, 1980 eruption; no...
March 24, 1980

Upper cone of Mount St. Helens before the May 18, 1980 eruption; no...

Although seismic activity began under Mount St. Helens on March 20, this overflight showed no unusual features except numerous tracks of earthquake-triggered snow avalanches. No evidence of fracturing of summit area was detected during careful visual observations on the afternoon of March 24, 1980. On March 25, the first cracks were noted by Bud Kimball, Tacoma, Washington

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Aerial photo of Mount St. Helens volcano, pre-1980 eruption
September 28, 1979

Aerial photo of Mount St. Helens volcano, pre-1980 eruption

Before the eruption of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens' elevation was 2,950 m (9,677 ft). View from the west, Mount Adams in distance. S. Fork Toutle River is valley in center of photo.

Mount Adams elevation is 3,745 m (12, 286 ft). Mount St. Helens was the smallest of five major volcanic peaks in Washington State.

Summit region (Kalama age–1479 to 1720 C.E.) of Mount St. Helens lo...
September 28, 1979

Summit region (Kalama age–1479 to 1720 C.E.) of Mount St. Helens lo...

Summit region (Kalama age–1479 to 1720 C.E.) of Mount St. Helens looking northeast. Spirit Lake and Mount Adams in background. September 28, 1979.

Worm Complex on the southeast flank of Mount St. Helens—Middle Kala...
September 28, 1979

Worm Complex on the SE flank of Mount St. Helens—Middle Kalama lava...

Worm Complex on the southeast flank of Mount St. Helens—Middle Kalama lava flows in center of image. Photo from September 28, 1979. Click to view larger image.

Goat Rocks age eruptive deposits (Mount St. Helens), Floating Islan...
September 28, 1979

Goat Rocks age eruptive deposits (Mount St. Helens), Floating Islan...

Studebaker Ridge formed during the Tertiary geologic time period (65 million to 2.6 million years ago). The pyroclastic surge from the May 18, 1980 eruption destroyed the trees on the ridge.

Aerial photograph of the Pāhala area, on the southern side of the Island of Hawaiʻi, taken on December 11, 1976
December 11, 1976

Aerial photograph of Pāhala region, Island of Hawai'i—Dec. 11, 1976

(Left) Aerial photograph of the Pāhala area, on the southern side of the Island of Hawaiʻi, taken on December 11, 1976. (Right) The backside of the same photo showing labeled field locations, marked with a pinhole through the photograph, which correspond to the geologist’s field notes. 

Mount Konocti on the western shore of Clear Lake, California
December 31, 1975

Mount Konocti on the western shore of Clear Lake, California

Mount Konocti, a mostly dacitic composite cone, on the western shore of Clear Lake, California. Thurston Lake is in the foreground.

Submerged coconut grove at Halapē after 1975 earthquake, Kīlauea Vo...
December 4, 1975

Submerged coconut grove at Halapē after 1975 quake, Kīlauea

A M 7.7 earthquake on November 29, 1975, was located beneath the south flank of Kīlauea. Along the south coast of Kīlauea at Halapē, 30 km southwest of the earthquake, the ground subsided by as much as 3.5 m (11.5 ft), which left a grove of coconut palms standing in water about 1.2 m (4 ft) deep and the new shoreline about 100 to 150 m (110 to 164 yd) inland from its

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