Programs L2 Landing Page
Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon
Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount...Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.
Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon
Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of...Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.
Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon
Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout...Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.
Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System
As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead...Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.
Mount Rainier: living safely with a volcano in your backyard
Majestic Mount Rainier soars almost 3 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level and looms over the expanding suburbs of Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. Each year almost two million visitors come to Mount Rainier National Park to admire the volcano and its glaciers, alpine meadows, and forested ridges. However, the volcano's beauty is deceptive - U.S....Driedger, Carolyn L.; Scott, William E.
A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a...Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.
Evolution of Deformation Studies on Active Hawaiian Volcanoes
Everything responds to pressure, even rocks. Deformation studies involve measuring and interpreting the changes in elevations and horizontal positions of the land surface or sea floor. These studies are variously referred to as geodetic changes or ground-surface deformations and are sometimes indexed under the general heading of geodesy....Decker, Robert W.; Okamura, Arnold; Miklius, Asta; Poland, Michael
A New Perspective on Mount St. Helens - Dramatic Landform Change and Associated Hazards at the Most Active Volcano in the Cascade Range
Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range during the past 4,000 years. The volcano has exhibited a variety of eruption styles?explosive eruptions of pumice and ash, slow but continuous extrusions of viscous lava, and eruptions of fluid lava. Evidence of the volcano?s older eruptions is recorded in the...Ramsey, David W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Schilling, Steve P.
Eruptions in the Cascade Range During the Past 4,000 Years
Volcanoes have been erupting in the Cascade Range for over 500,000 years. During the past 4,000 years eruptions have occurred at an average rate of about 2 per century. This chart shows 13 volcanoes on a map of Washington, Oregon, and northern California and time lines for each showing the ages of their eruptions.Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn
Geologic Hazards at Volcanoes
Most volcano hazards are associated with eruptions. However, some hazards, such as lahars and debris avalanches, can occur even when a volcano is not erupting.Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn
Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004 - 2005 Tephra Samples with Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry
This open-file report presents a catalog of information about 135 ash samples along with geochemical analyses of bulk ash, glass and individual mineral grains from tephra deposited as a result of volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens, Washington, from October 1, 2004 until August 15, 2005. This data, in conjunction with that in a companion report...Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Gooding, Daniel J.; Pallister, John S.
Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004-2007 Dome Samples with Major- and Trace-Element Chemistry
Sampling and analysis of eruptive products at Mount St. Helens is an integral part of volcano monitoring efforts conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?s Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). The objective of our eruption sampling program is to enable petrological assessments of pre-eruptive magmatic conditions, critical for ascertaining mechanisms...Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Rowe, Michael C.; McConnell, Siobhan; Herriott, Trystan M.; Eckberg, Alison; Stokes, Winston C.; Cornelius, Diane Johnson; Conrey, Richard M.; Hannah, Tammy; Taggart, Joseph E.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Budahn, James R.; Knaack, Charles M.
Moving magma can deform the surface of the Earth. This animation shows how a tiltmeter and GPS are used to detect the subtle signs that tell scientists something about what is going on beneath the surface.
This animation shows how gases behave in magma and how an airplane-mounted UV spectrometer can measure gases in a volcanic plume.
Fissure eruption of low lava fountains from Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone in 2007, Island of Hawaiʻi.
USGS geologist Seth Burgess examining a Siberian Traps lava flow up close. The vertical cracks formed during cooling of the lava flow, dividing the original basaltic lava into hexagonally shaped columns of rock. The many horizontal cracks across the columns are likely also related to cooling of the flow. The orange patches on the rocks are lichens.
MODIS Aqua 1 km true color satellite image showing resuspended volcanic ash cloud (arrow) generated from high winds scouring exposed ash on the Pacific side of the Katmai volcanic range. The cloud stretches across the Shelikof Straight and western Kodiak Island. Image ID 2010333 taken November 29, 2010. Courtesy NASA.
Looking out to distant flat-topped mountains that are remains of ancient basalt lava flows and sills of the Siberian Traps. The foreground is also the weathered, rubbly top of an ancient eroded sill. The Maymecha river can be seen in the distance winding its way through the the thick volcanic layers of the Siberian Traps.
Redoubt Volcano viewed from the northwest following the April 4, 2009 eruption (Event 19). Steam rises from the summit crater, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits drape the flanks, and lahar deposits cover the Drift River Valley.
Ashfall deposit in Anchor Point, AK from the April 4, 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. This is an example of a well-documented photograph of ashfall by a citizen scientist. The scale is from AVO's Ash Collection Worksheet downloadable from: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/ashfall.php