Wildland Fire Science

Publications

Filter Total Items: 274
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Year Published: 2021

Weather affects post‐fire recovery of sagebrush‐steppe communities and model transferability among sites

Altered climate, including weather extremes, can cause major shifts in vegetative recovery after disturbances. Predictive models that can identify the separate and combined temporal effects of disturbance and weather on plant communities and that are transferable among sites are needed to guide vulnerability assessments and management...

Applestein, Cara; Caughlin, Trevor; Germino, Matthew

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Year Published: 2021

Predicting the spatiotemporal exposure of aquatic species to intrusions of fire retardant in streams with limited data

Because fire retardant can enter streams and harm aquatic species including endangered fish, agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) must estimate the downstream extent of toxic effects every time fire retardant enters streams (denoted as an “intrusion”). A challenge in estimating the length of stream affected by the intrusion...

Rehmann, Chris R.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Puglis, Holly J.

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Year Published: 2021

The changes in species composition mediate direct effects of climate change on future fire regimes of boreal forests in northeastern China

Direct effects of climate change (i.e. temperature rise, changes in seasonal precipitation, wind patterns and atmospheric stability) affect fire regimes of boreal forests by altering fire behaviour, fire seasons and fuel moisture. Climate change also alters species composition and fuel characteristics, which subsequently alter fire regimes....

Huang, Chao; He, Hong S.; Liang, Yu; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Henne, Paul D.; Xu, Wenru; Gong, Peng; Zhu, Zhiliang

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Year Published: 2021

The basin characterization model—A regional water balance software package

This report documents the computer software package, Basin Characterization Model, version 8 (BCMv8)—a monthly, gridded, regional water-balance model—and provides detailed operational instructions and example applications. After several years of many applications and uses of a previous version, CA-BCM, published in 2014, the BCMv8 was refined to...

Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Stern, Michelle A.
Flint, L.E., Flint, A.L., and Stern, M.A., 2021, The basin characterization model—A regional water balance software package: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6–H1, 85 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm6H1.

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Year Published: 2021

Fire frequency impacts soil properties and processes in sagebrush steppe ecosystems of the Columbia Basin

Increased fire frequency in semi-arid ecosystems can alter biochemical soil properties and soil processes that underpin ecosystem structure and functioning, thus threatening native plant communities and the species that rely on them. However, there is much uncertainty about the magnitude of change as soils are exposed to more fires, because soil...

Nichols, Leslie; Shinneman, Douglas J.; McIlroy, Susan; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

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Year Published: 2021

Post-fire management targeting invasive annual grasses may have inadvertently released the exotic perennial forb Chondrilla juncea and suppressed its biocontrol agent

Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting invasive populations are rarely considered simultaneously, yet their interactive responses to disturbances and management interventions can be essential to understanding invasion patterns. We evaluated post-fire responses of the exotic perennial forb Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) and its...

Lazarus, Brynne E.; Germino, Matthew

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Year Published: 2021

The evolving perceptual model of streamflow generation at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed

The Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) is a 41‐hectare forested catchment within the Piedmont Province of the Southeastern United States. Observations, experimentation, and numerical modelling have been conducted at Panola over the past 35 years. But to date, these studies have not been fully incorporated into a more comprehensive synthesis...

Aulenbach, Brent T.; Hooper, Richard P; van Meerveld, H. J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Freer, James E.; Shanley, James B.; Huntington, Thomas; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Norman E. Peters

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Year Published: 2021

Multiple-scale relationships between vegetation, the wildland–urban interface, and structure loss to wildfire in California

Recent increases in destructive wildfires are driving a need for empirical research documenting factors that contribute to structure loss. Existing studies show that fire risk is complex and varies geographically, and the role of vegetation has been especially difficult to quantify. Here, we evaluated the relative importance of vegetation cover at...

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Rustigian-Romsos, Heather; Keeley, Jon

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Year Published: 2021

A chemical and bio‐herbicide mixture increased exotic invaders, both targeted and non‐targeted, across a diversely invaded landscape after fire

QuestionsInvasive‐plant treatments often target a single or few species, but many landscapes are diversely invaded. Exotic annual grasses (EAGs) increase wildfires and degrade native perennial plant communities in cold‐desert rangelands, and herbicides are thus sprayed to inhibit EAG germination and establishment. We asked how EAG target and non‐...

Lazarus, Brynne E.; Germino, Matthew J.

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Year Published: 2021

Expected warning times from the ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system for earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest

The ShakeAlert® earthquake early warning system has been live since October 2019 for the testing of public alerting to mobile devices in California and will soon begin testing this modality in Oregon and Washington. The Pacific Northwest presents new challenges and opportunities for ShakeAlert owing to the different types of earthquakes that occur...

McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Deborah E.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Wirth, Erin A.; McBride, Sara K.; de Groot, Robert M.
McGuire, J.J., Smith, D.E., Frankel, A.D., Wirth, E.A., McBride, S.K., and de Groot, R.M., 2021, Expected warning times from the ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system for earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest (ver. 1.1, March 24, 2021): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1026, 37 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211026.

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Year Published: 2021

Sagebrush conservation strategy—Challenges to sagebrush conservation

The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome, its wildlife, and the services and benefits it provides people and local communities are at risk. Development in the sagebrush biome, for many purposes, has resulted in multiple and often cumulative negative impacts. These impacts, ranging from simple habitat loss to complex, interactive changes in ecosystem...

Remington, Thomas E.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Hanser, Steve E.; Davis, Dawn M.; Robb, Leslie A.; Welty, Justin L.
Remington, T.E., Deibert, P.A., Hanser, S.E., Davis, D.M., Robb, L.A., and Welty, J.L., 2021, Sagebrush conservation strategy—Challenges to sagebrush conservation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1125, 327 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201125.

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Year Published: 2021

Weather and distance to fire refugia limit landscape‐level occurrence of fungal disease in an exotic annual grass

The enemy release hypothesis proposes that invasion by exotic plant species is driven by their release from natural enemies (i.e. herbivores and pathogens) in their introduced ranges. However, in many cases, natural enemies, which may be introduced or managed to regulate invasive species, may fail to impact target host populations. Landscape...

Applestein, Cara; Simler-Williamson, Allison Barbara; Germino, Matthew J.