Landsat Collections

Landsat Collection 2

In 2019, the USGS intends to finalize the definition, production timeline and public availability of Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 products.

 Return to Landsat Collections Overview 


A primary characteristic of Collection 2 data is the implementation of the Sentinel 2 Global Reference Image (GRI) into updated Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) ground control points for improved geometric accuracy. Landsat Collection 2 will deliver Landsat Level-1 data for all sensors, as well as global Level-2 surface reflectance and surface temperature data products for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) /Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), initially. Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 MSS products are not available at this time. A Level-2 MSS surface reflectance product will become available upon maturity of an operational atmospheric compensation algorithm. 

Landsat 9 Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2)/Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2) data will be processed into the Collection 2 inventory structure only and made available for download in early 2021. Additionally, Landsat Collection 2 will include updated, and for some regions of the world, new digital elevation modeling (DEM) sources while retaining a 3-arc-second resolution.

Landsat Collection 2 will be processed in a cloud computing environment that will facilitate rapid processing of the entire USGS Landsat archive. Furthermore, to improve the user community’s online search, discovery, access and download of data products, the USGS Landsat archive will be distributed in a Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format. A Landsat COG-formatted product contains the same number of bands as the legacy Landsat GeoTIFF product.

Landsat Collection 2 processing is expected to start in early calendar year 2020, with public availability soon after. Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 Collection 1 data processing will continue for at least one year, and Collection 1 data product downloads will remain available even after Collection 2 is publicly available.

More detailed Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 data characteristic webpages are being prepared, and their availability will be broadcast across all USGS Landsat Missions social media platforms once published.

Note: U.S. Landsat ARD for the conterminous United States, Alaska and Hawaii will be made available as a standalone product using Collection 2 Level-1 inputs. The Collection 2 U.S. Landsat ARD Data Format Control Book is currently being baselined and will be distributed from this website soon.


Collection 2 Level-1 Data Products

Landsat Collection 2 will deliver Landsat Level-1 data for all sensors, as well as global Level-2 surface reflectance and surface temperature data products.  This page lists the characteristics for Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 products. 

In addition to an updated geometric registration base, the following changes will be implemented to preserve the capabilities for users relying on the current Collection-based Level-1 product:  

  • Angle bands (solar and sensor viewing zenith and azimuth) will be included to allow users to generate Top of Atmosphere Reflectance and Top of Atmosphere Brightness Temperature bands
  • Consistent Level-1 and Level-2 product Quality Assessment bands
  • Improved product modeling to increase the number of scenes that process to a Level-1 Terrain Precision (L1TP)
  • Include TM/ETM+ Internal Calibrator (IC) shutter intrusion detection with associated metadata
  • Incorporate minor bug fixes and calibration/validation updates

Collection 2 Level-1 products will be scene-based and in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)/Polar Stereographic (PS) Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format.


Collection 2 Level-2 Data Products

Collection 2 Level-2 products are generated from Collection 2 Level-1 inputs that meet the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) constraint; and include the required auxiliary data inputs to generate a scientifically viable product. Other characteristics include: 

  • Consistent Level-1 and Level-2 product Quality Assessment bands
  • Surface reflectance generated from the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS), and Land Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) algorithms
  • Surface temperature generated using the Rochester Institute of Technology and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory single channel algorithms
  • Metadata provided in Object Description Language (ODL) metadata (MTL), Extensible Markup Language (XML), and SpatioTemporal Asset Catalog (STAC) formats

Collection 2 Level-2 products will be scene-based and in UTM/PS Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format. 


Collection 2 Documentation

Users are encouraged to reference the COG Data Format Control Book (DFCB) for a detailed description of the image, product and Spatiotemporal Asset Catalog (STAC) metadata files. Together with the instrument specific Level-1 DFCBs, the COG DFCB provides the user with a comprehensive overview of the new Landsat Collection 2 products.

Landsat Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) Data Format Control Book

Level-1 Documents

Level-2 Documents


Landsat Sample Products

The USGS provides the Landsat user community with access to standard and provisional sample products. These may include new science products (e.g., Level-3 evapotranspiration), and/or future product improvements, enhancements or bug fixes (e.g., shutter intrusion events). Please visit the Landsat Sample Products webpage for the most current USGS sample product availability.