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Browse more than 160,000 publications authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS.  Publications available are: USGS-authored journal articles, series reports, book chapters, other government publications, and more.

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A comparison of eDNA and visual survey methods for detection of longnose darter Percina nasuta in Missouri

The longnose darter Percina nasuta is a rare and cryptic fish that recently disappeared from much of its historic range. We developed and used an environmental DNA (eDNA) assay for longnose darter paired with visual surveys to better determine the species’ range and compare detection probability between sampling approaches in an occupancy modeling framework. We detected longnose darter eDNA furthe

Errors in aerial survey count data: Identifying pitfalls and solutions

Accurate estimates of animal abundance are essential for guiding effective management, and poor survey data can produce misleading inferences. Aerial surveys are an efficient survey platform, capable of collecting wildlife data across large spatial extents in short timeframes. However, these surveys can yield unreliable data if not carefully executed. Despite a long history of aerial survey use in

Estimating the aboveground biomass and carbon stocks of tall shrubs in a prerestoration degraded salt marsh

Wetlands play a vital role in Earth's carbon cycle and provide important ecosystem services. Their ability to perform their roles can be compromised by human activities that destroy or impair their functioning. The restoration of degraded wetlands may allow carbon cycle functioning, as well as other services, to be recovered. Predicting the potential outcomes from any restoration project requires

Comparative virulence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genotypes in two koi varieties

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), is a lethal freshwater pathogen of cyprinid fish, and Cyprinus carpio koi is a primary host species. The virus was initially described in the 1960s after outbreaks occurred in Europe, but a global expansion of SVCV has been ongoing since the late 1990s. Genetic typing of SVCV isolates separates them into 4 genotypes that are correlated with geographic origin: I

Inherit the kingdom or storm the castle? Breeding strategies in a social carnivore

Breeding opportunities are inherently limited for animals that live and breed in groups. Turnover in breeding positions can have marked effects on groups of cooperative breeders, particularly social carnivores. We generally know little about how breeding vacancies are filled in social carnivores and what factors might influence an individual's ability to successfully fill a vacancy. I used a long-

Pedigree analysis and estimates of effective breeding size characterize sea lamprey reproductive biology

The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an invasive species in the Great Lakes and the focus of a large control and assessment program. Current assessment methods provide information on the census size of spawning adult sea lamprey in a small number of streams, but information characterizing reproductive success of spawning adults is rarely available. We used RAD-capture sequencing to genotype sin

Temporal greenness trends in stable natural land cover and relationships with climatic variability across the conterminous United States

Assessment of temporal trends in vegetation greenness and related influences aids understanding of recent change in terrestrial ecosystems and feedbacks from weather, climate, and environment. We analyzed 1-km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) timeseries data (1989–2016) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and developed growing season time-integrated NDVI

A climate-mediated shift in the estuarine habitat mosaic limits prey availability and reduces nursery quality for juvenile salmon

The estuarine habitat mosaic supports the reproduction, growth, and survival of resident and migratory fish species by providing a diverse portfolio of unique habitats with varying physical and biological features. Global climate change is expected to result in increasing temperatures, rising sea levels, and changes in riverine hydrology, which will have profound effects on the extent and composit

Urban landcover differentially drives day and nighttime air temperature across a semi-arid city

Semi-arid urban environments are undergoing an increase in both average air temperatures and in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events. Within cities, different composition and densities of urban landcovers (ULC) influence local air temperatures, either mitigating or increasing heat. Currently, understanding how combinations of ULC influence air temperature at the block to neighborhood

Large fires or small fires, will they differ in affecting shifts in species composition and distributions under climate change?

Climate change is expected to increase fire activity, which has the potential to accelerate climate-induced shifts in species composition and distribution in the boreal-temperate ecotone. Wildfire can kill resident trees, and thus provide establishment opportunities for migrating tree species. However, the role of fire size and its interactions with tree species with varied life-history attributes

Modeling the dynamics of salt marsh development in coastal land reclamation

The valuable ecosystem services of salt marshes are spurring marsh restoration projects around the world. However, it is difficult to determine the final vegetated area based on physical drivers. Herein, we use a 3D fully coupled vegetation-hydrodynamic-morphological modeling system (COAWST), to simulate the final vegetation cover and the timescale to reach it under various forcing conditions. Mar

Surface ocean warming and acidification driven by rapid carbon release precedes Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is recognized by a major negative carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion (CIE) signifying an injection of isotopically light carbon into exogenic reservoirs, the mass, source, and tempo of which continue to be debated. Evidence of a transient precursor carbon release(s) has been identified in a few localities, although it remains equivocal whether there is a gl