Benjamin Sleeter

Biography

My research activities focus on characterizing changes in land use and disturbance – past, present and future - and how they impact ecosystem carbon dynamics. I lead two large projects which have shared goals of further developing USGS capabilities in land change science and ecosystem carbon cycling. I lead the development of the LUCAS modeling framework (Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator).
 

Mu, J., Sleeter, B.M., Abatzoglou, J., Antle, J., 2017, Climate impacts on agricultural land use in the United States: The role of socio-economic scenarios, Climatic Change, DOI 10.1007/s10584-017-2033-x. IP-088868.

Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., and Sherba, J.T., 2017, Land Use and Land Cover Projections for California's 4th Climate Assessment: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7M61HFP. IP-083329

Selmants, P.C., C.P. Giardina, B.M. Sleeter, J. Liu, Z. Zhu, 2017, Chapter 9. Hawaii carbon balance, in Selmants, P.C., Giardina, C.P., Jacobi, J.D., and Zhu, Zhiliang, eds., in press, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1834, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1834. IP-077242

Sleeter, B.M., J. Liu, C. Daniel, T.J. Hawbaker, T.S. Wilson, L. Fortini, J. Jacobi, P.C. Selmants, C.P. Giardina, C.M. Litton, R. Flint Hughes, 2017, Chapter 8. Projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Hawaii resulting from changes in land use and disturbance, in Selmants, P.C., Giardina, C.P., Jacobi, J.D., and Zhu, Zhiliang, eds., in press, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1834, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1834. IP-077242

Sleeter, B.M., Wood, N.J., Wilson, T.S., and Soulard, C.E., 2017, Projecting community changes in hazard exposure to support long-term risk reduction: a case study of tsunami hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F70G3HB8. IP-080885

Sleeter, B.M., N.J. Wood, C.E. Soulard, T.S. Wilson, 2017, Projecting community changes in hazard exposure to support long-term risk reduction: a case study of tsunami hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.02.015. IP-080885.

Bachelet, D., K. Ferschweiler, T. Sheehan, B. Baker, B.M. Sleeter, Z. Zhu, 2017, Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Science, Elsevier, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09770-0. IP-083251.

Sohl, T.L., M. Wimberly, V. Radeloff, D. Theobald, B.M. Sleeter, 2016, Divergent projections of future land use in the United States arising from different models and scenarios, Ecological Modeling, Vol 337, pp. 281-297, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.07.016. IP-074476.

Sleeter, R., B.M. Sleeter, B. Williams, D. Hogan, T. Hawbaker, Z. Zhu, 2017, A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem, Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 12(2), doi: 10.1186/s13021-017-0070-4. IP-080327.

Liu, J., B.M. Sleeter, Z. Zhu, L.S. Heath, Z. Tan, T.S. Wilson, J. Sherba, D. Zhou, 2016, Estimating carbon sequestration in the piedmont ecoregion of the United States from 1971 to 2010, Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 11(10), doi: 10.1186/s13021-016-0052-y. IP-075244.

Wilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, D. Cameron, 2016, Future land-use related water demand in California, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 11(5), 054018, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054018. IP-066502.

Daniel, C., L. Frid, B.M. Sleeter, M.J. Fortin, 2016, State-and-transition models: a framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol 7(11), p 1413-1423, doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12597. IP-071108.

Huang, S., Liu, S., Liu, J., Dahal, D., Young, C., Davis, B., Sohl, T.L., Hawbaker, T.J., Sleeter, B.M., Zhu, Z., 2015, Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050. Carbon Balance and Management. 10(7). doi:10.1186/s13021-015-0017-6. IP-061235.

Bachelet, D., K. Ferschweiler, T.J. Sheehan, B.M. Sleeter, Z. Zhu, 2015, Projected carbon stocks in the conterminous USA with land use and variable fire regimes, Global Change Biology vol. 21, pp. 4548-4560 doi:10.1111/gcb.13048. IP-088629

Sleeter, B.M., J. Liu, C. Daniel, L. Frid, Z. Zhu, 2015, An integrated approach to modeling changes in land use, land cover, and disturbance and their impact on ecosystem carbon dynamics: a case study in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. AIMS Environmental Science, 2(3), 577-606. https://doi.org/10.3934/environsci.2015.2.577. IP-064456

Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., Sherba, J., and D. Cameron (2015). Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios. AIMS Environmental Science 2(2): 282-301. https://doi.org/10.3934/environsci.2015.2.282. IP-062790

Sherba, J.T., B.M. Sleeter, A.W. Davis, O. Parker, 2015, Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling, AIMS Environmental Science, 2(3), 623-647. https://doi.org/10.3934/environsci.2015.3.623. IP-063655

Sleeter, R.R., W. Acevedo, C.E. Soulard, B.M. Sleeter, 2015, Methods used to parameterize the spatially-explicit components of a state-and-transition simulation model, AIMS Environmental Science 2(3), 668-693. https://doi.org/10.3934/environsci.2015.3.668. IP-064560

Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., and A.W. Davis, (2014). Projected future land use threats to California’s protected areas. Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 15(6), pp. 1051-1064. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-014-0686-9. IP-049757

Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., Sleeter, R.R., Soulard, C.E. (2014). Land use threats and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape level approach.  Land, Vol 3(2), pp. 362-389. http://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/3/2/362 IP-052848

Byrd, K.B., L.E. Flint, P. Alvarez, C.F. Casey, B.M. Sleeter, C.E. Soulard, A.L. Flint, T.L. Sohl, 2015, Integrated climate and land use change scenarios for California rangeland ecosystem services: wildlife habitat, soil carbon, and water supply, Landscape Ecology, 30, 729-750. doi:10.1007/s10980-015-0159-7. IP-059547.

Byrd, K., Sleeter, B.M., Flint, L., Soulard, C., Alvarez, P. Casey, F., Sohl, T., 2014, Integrated scenarios and outreach for habitat threat assessments on California rangelands.  In: Considering Multiple Futures: Scenario planning to address uncertainty in natural resource conservation, E.L. Rowland, M.S. Cross, H. Hartmann (Eds.). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chapter 3.7, Washington D.C., http://www.fws.gov/home/climatechange/pdf/Scenario-Planning-Report.pdf.

Zhu, Z., Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T.L., Hawbaker, T.J., Liu, S., Stackpoole, S., Bergamaschi, B.A., and Reddy, A.D., 2014, Scope, methodology, and current knowledge, chap. 1 of Zhu, Z., and Reed, B.C., eds., Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1804, p. 7-16. IP-045915.

Reker, R.R., Sayler, K.L., Friesz, A.M., Sohl, T.L., Bouchard, M.A., Sleeter, B.M., Sleeter, R.R., Wilson, T.S., Griffith, G.E. and M.L. Knuppe (2014). Mapping and Modeling of Land Use and Land Cover in the Eastern United States From 1992-2050. Chapter 3 in Zhu, Zhiliang, and Reed, Bradley, eds., Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1804, 204 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1804. IP-045915.

Sleeter, B.M., Griffith, G., Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, R.R., Soulard, C.E., Sayler, K.L., Reker, R.R., Bouchard, M.A. and T.L. Sohl (2014). Ecoregion and Scenario Framework. Chapter 2 in Zhu, Zhiliang, and Reed, Bradley, eds., Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1804, 204 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1804. IP-045915.

Soulard, C.E., Acevedo, W., Auch, R.F., Sohl, T.L., Drummond, M.A., Sleeter, B.M., Sorenson, D.G., Kambly, S., Wilson, T.S., Taylor, J.L., Sayler, K.L., Stier, M.P., Barnes, C.A., Methven, S.C., Loveland, T.R., Headley, R., and Brooks, M.S., 2014, Land Cover Trends Dataset, 1973–2000: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 844, 10 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds844. IP-049832.

Sohl, TL, Sayler, KL, Bouchard, MA, Reker, RR, Friesz, AM, Bennett, SL, Sleeter, B.M., Sleeter, RR, Wilson, TS, Soulard, CE, Knuppe, M, Van Hofwegen, T., 2014, Spatially explicit modeling of 1992–2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States. Ecological Applications 24:1015–1036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1245.1 . IP-042928.

Byrd, K., Ratliff, J., Bliss, N., Wein, A., Sleeter, B.M., Li, Z., 2013, Quantifying climate change mitigation potential in Great Plains wetlands for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios, Mitigation and Adaptation of Strategies for Global Change, Vol 20(3), pp 439-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9500-0  IP-044709.

Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T.L., Loveland, T.R., Auch, R.F., Acevedo, W., Drummond, M.A., Sayler, K.L., Stehman, S.V., 2013, Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973-2000, Global Environmental Change, vol. 23, p. 733-748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.03.006. IP-035634.

Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T.L., Griffith, G., Acevedo, W., Bennett, S., Bouchard, M.A., Reker, R.R., Ryan, C.L., Sayler, K.L., Sleeter, R.R., Soulard, C.E., 2012, Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States – The Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1252, 14 p. and data files. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1252/.

Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W., (eds.), 2012, Status and trends of land change in the western United States – 1973 to 2000, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1794/a/.  IP-030938.

Sleeter, B.M., Soulard, C.E., Wilson, T.S., Sorenson, D.G., 2012, Chapter 1: Land-cover trends in the Western United States – 1973 to 2000, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W., (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover – 1973 to 2000, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1794/a/.

Zhu, Z., Bergamaschi, B.A., Butman, D., Clow, D.W., Hawbaker, T.J., Liu, J., Liu, S., McDonald, C.P., Sleeter, B.M., Smith, R.A., Sohl, T.L., Stackpoole, S.M., Wein, A., Wu, Y., Executive Summary – Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States. In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 1-4. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Zhu, Z., Sleeter, B.M., Griffith, G., Stackpoole, S., Hawbaker, T., Bergamaschi, B., 2012, Introduction to scope, methodology, and ecosystems of the assessment. In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 5-16. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Sohl, T.L., Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Bouchard, M.A., Sleeter, R.R., Sayler, K.L., Reker, R.R., Soulard, C.E., 2012, Baseline land-use and land-cover changes in the western United States – 1992 to 2005. In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 17-28. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T.L., Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, R.R., Soulard, C.E., Bouchard, M.A., Sayler, K.L., Reker, R.R., Griffith, G., 2012, Projected land-use and land-cover change in the western United States, 2012. In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 65-86. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Liu, S., Liu, J., Young, C., Werner, J., Wu, Y., Li, Z., Dahal, D., Oeding, J., Schmidt, G., Sohl, T.L., Hawbaker, T.J., Sleeter, B.M., 2012, Baseline carbon storage, sequestration, and greenhouse gas fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in the western United States, In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 45-64. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Liu, S., Wu, Y., Young, C., Dahal, D., Werner, J., Liu, J., Li, Z., Tan, Z., Schmidt, G., Oeding, J., Sohl, T.L., Hawbaker, T.J., Sleeter, B.M., 2012, Projected future carbon storage and greenhouse gas fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in the western United States, In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 109-124. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Liu, S., Zhu, Z., Sohl, T.L., Hawbaker, T.J., Sleeter, B.M., Stackpoole, S., Smith, R., 2012, Integrated analysis of land use, climate, and disturbances on potentials of carbon sequestration an GHG emissions reduction in the western United States, In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 159-170. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Wein, A., Hawbaker, T.J., Champion, R., Ratliff, J., Sleeter, B.M., Zhu, Z., 2012, Descriptions of climate projections used for the western U.S. assessment, In: Zhu, Z., and Reed, B. (eds.), Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, p. 87-96. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1797/.

Sleeter, B.M., Calzia, J.P., Walter, S.R., 2012, Earthquakes and Faults in Southern California: 1970-2010, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2012-3222. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3222/.

Sohl, T.L., Sleeter, B.M., 2012, Land-use and land-cover scenarios and spatial modeling at the regional scale, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3091. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3091/. IP-037145

Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T.L., Bouchard, M.A., Reker, R.R., Soulard, C.E., Acevedo, W., Griffith, G.E., Sleeter, R.R., Auch, R.F., Sayler, K.L., Prisley, S., Zhu, Z., 2012, Scenarios of Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Conterminous United States: Utilizing the Special Report on Emission Scenarios at Ecoregional Scales, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 22(4): pp. 896-914.  IP-030516.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.03.008.

Soulard, C.E., Sleeter. B.M., 2012, Late twentieth century land-cover change in the basin and range ecoregions of the United States, Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 12(4), p. 813-823. doi:10.1007/s10113-012-0296-3.

Sohl, T.L., Sleeter, B.M., Sayler, K.L., Bouchard, M.A., Reker, R.R., Bennett, S.L., Sleeter, R.R., Kanengieter, R.L., Zhu, Z., 2012, Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, Vol 153: pp 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.02.019.

Zhu, Z. ed., Bouchard, M., Butman, D., Hawbaker, T., Li, Z., Liu, J., Liu, S., McDonald, C., Reker, R., Sayler, K., Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T., Stackpoole, S., Wein, A., Zhu, Z., 2011, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 2011-1787, 28 p. Also available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1787/.

Sohl, T.L., Sleeter, B.M., 2011, Role of Remote Sensing for Land-Use and Land-Cove Change Modeling, in Remote Sensing and Land Cover: Principles and Applications, ed. C. Giri, Taylor and Francis CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b11964-18.

Sohl, T.L., Sleeter, B.M., Hawbaker, T., Zhu, Z., Sayler, K., Bennett, S., Bouchard, M., Reker, R., Wein, A., Liu, S., Acevedo, W., Kanengieter, R., 2011, A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy for the assessment of carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes, Applied Geography, vol. 34, p. 111-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.10.019.

Liu, J., Vogelmann, J., Zhu, Z., Key, C., Sleeter, B.M., Price, D., Chen, J., Cochrane, M., Eidenshink, J., Howard, S., Bliss, N., Jiang, H., 2011, Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000 Ecological Modeling, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.03.042.

Zhu, Z., ed., Bergamaschi, B., Bernknopf, R., Clow, D., Dye, D., Faulkner, S., Forney, W., Gleason, R., Hawbaker, T., Liu, J., Liu, S., Prisley, S., Reed, B., Reeves, M., Rollins, M., Sleeter, B.M., Sohl, T., Stackpoole, S., Stehman, S., Striegl, R., Wein, A., and Zhu, Z., 2010, A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5233, 195 p. plus nine appendixes, online only at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1144/.).

Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Soulard, C.E., Liu, J., 2011, Estimation of late 20th Century landscape change in California, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 173, p. 251-266, doi:10.1007/s10661-010-1385-8

Sohl, T.L, Loveland, T.R., Sleeter, B.M., Sayler, K.L., Barnes, C.A., 2009, Addressing foundational elements of regional land-use change forecasting, Landscape Ecology, Vol. 25, pp. 233-247. doi:10.1007/s10980-009-9391-3.

Sleeter, B.M., 2009, The Snake River Plain Ecoregion, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W. (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A, [available on the World Wide Web at http://landcovertrends.usgs.gov/west/eco12Report.html]

Sleeter, B.M., 2009, The Columbia Plateau Ecoregion, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W. (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A, [available on the World Wide Web at http://landcovertrends.usgs.gov/west/eco10Report.html]

Sleeter, B. M., and J. P. Calzia, 2009, The Klamath Mountains Ecoregion, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W. (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A, [available on the World Wide Web at http://landcovertrends.usgs.gov/west/eco78Report.html]

Sleeter, B.M., 2008, The Mojave Basin and Range Ecoregion, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W. (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A, [available on the World Wide Web at http://landcovertrends.usgs.gov/west/eco14Report.html]

Sleeter, B.M., 2008, Late 20th century land change in the Central California Valley Ecoregion, The California Geographer, Vol. 48 pp. 27-60.

Sleeter, B.M., 2007, The Central California Valley Ecoregion, In: Sleeter, B.M., Wilson, T.S., Acevedo, W. (eds.), Status and Trends of Western United States Land Cover, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1794-A, [available on the World Wide Web at http://landcovertrends.usgs.gov/west/eco7Report.html]

Wood, N., Sleeter, B.M., and Ng, P., 2006, Land Cover Trends Extension to Support Field-Data Collection and Management, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 11-C1 [available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2006/tm11c1/tm11c1.pdf].

Sleeter, B.M., Raumann, C.R., 2006, Land-Cover Trends in the Mojave Basin and Range ecoregion, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5098 [available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5098/sir2006-5098.pdf].

Sleeter, B.M., Halsing, D.L., 2005, Results of land cover change detection analysis in and around Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru:  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2879, scale 1:380,000, 6 sheets. [available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2005/2879/].

Halsing, D.L., Sleeter, B.M., Champion, R.A., 2004, Detection and prediction of land-cover change in and around Cordillera Azul National Park—Peru, Proceedings of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Special Conference Images to Decisions: Remote Sensing Foundations for GIS Applications, Kansas City, MO, September 12-16, 2004.

Sleeter, B.M., Calzia, J.P., Walter, S.R., Wong, F.L., and Saucedo, G., 2004, Earthquakes and Faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003): U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2848, scale 1:300,000. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2004/2848/.

Sleeter, B.M., 2002, Using Landsat TM to detect, map, and quantify tropical deforestation in and around Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul, Peru, submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography, California State University Hayward (East Bay), Department of Geography and Environmental Studies.