Luke R Iwanowicz, Ph.D.



Dr. Iwanowicz is a research biologist at the USGS, Leetown Science Center, National Fish Health Research Laboratory in Leetown, WV. His primary research focuses on the application of resident fishes as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health, the development of molecular tools for field study, and the identification of emerging diseases of fishes. He also leads a Core Technology Team established to evaluate environmental water samples for biological activity including endocrine disrupting activity and toxicity. 


  • Ph.D. 2008, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Department of Natural Resources, Advisor: Stephen D. McCormick
  • M.S. 2000, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Department of Aquaculture/Fisheries, Advisor: Andrew E. Goodwin
  • B.S. 1997, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Major: Fish Biology, Minor: Biology

Professional Experience

  • Editorial Board, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2016-present
  • Adjunct Graduate Faculty, University of Maryland, College Park, 2015-present
  • Associate Editor, Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 2009-2017
  • Research Biologist, US Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, 2008-present
  • Research Fish Biologist, US Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, 2006-2008
  • Biological Laboratory Technician, US Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, 2002-2006
  • Scientist II, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 2001-2002

Selected Awards & Recognition

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Scientific and Technological Achievement Award (2015)
  • Spotlight Feature Article, Journal of Virology (2015)
  • American Fisheries Society, Most significant paper in Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (2011)
  • AFS-Fish Health Section; Special Achievement Award (2011)
  • American Fisheries Society, Most significant paper in Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (2004)

Professional Societies

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • American Society for Microbiology
  • American Fisheries Society
  • Microbiology Society
  • Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry


1.      Densmore, C.L., D.D. Iwanowicz, C.A. Ottinger, L.J. Hindman, A.M. Bessler, L.R. Iwanowicz, D. J. Prosser, M. Whitbeck, and C.P. Driscoll (2017) Molecular detection of the avian influenza virus from sediment samples in waterfowl habitats on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Avian Diseases. In press. [Link]

2.      Iwanowicz, L.R., D.D. Iwanowicz, C.R. Adams, H. Galbraith, A. Aunins and R.S. Cornman (2017) Draft Genome of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Genome Announcements. 5: e01022-17 [Link]

3.      Hubbard, L. E., D.W. Kolpin, C.L. Fields, M.L. Hladik, L.R. Iwanowicz, S.K. Spencer (2017). Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results. Environmental Research. 158: 212-224. [Link]

4.      Bradley, P.M., W.A. Battaglin, J.M. Clark, F. Henning, L.R. Iwanowicz, C.A. Journey, J.W. Riley, and K.M. Romanok. 2017. Widespread Occurrence and Potential for Biodegradation of Bioactive Contaminants in Congaree National Park, USA. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. ePub [Link]

5.      Conley, J.M., N. Evans, M.C. Cardon, L. Rosenblum, L.R. Iwanowicz, P.C. Hartig, K.M. Schenck, P.M. Bradley, V.S. Wilson (2017) Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters. Environmental Science & Technology. 51: 4781-4791. [Link]

6.      Bradley, Paul, C. Journey, K. Romanok, L. Barber, H. Buxton, W. Foreman, E. Furlong, S. Glassmeyer, M. Hladik, L. Iwanowicz, D. Jones, D. Kolpin, K. Kuivila, K. Loftin, M. Mills, M. Meyer, J. Orlando, T. Reilly, K. Smalling, and D. Villeneuve (2017) Expanded Target-Chemical Assessment Reveals Extensive Mixed-Organic-Contaminant Exposure in USA Streams. Environmental Science & Technology.  Environmental Science & Technology. 51:4792-4802. [Link]

7.      Prosser, D.J. C.L. Densmore, L.J. Hindman, D.D. Iwanowicz, C.A. Ottinger, L.R. Iwanowicz, C.P. Driscoll, and J.L. Nagel. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland. Avian Diseases. 61:128-134. [Link]

8.      Iwanowicz, L.R., D.D. Iwanowicz, C.R. Adams, T. D. Lewis, T. M. Brandt, R.S. Cornman and L. Sanders (2016) Complete Genome of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola) (2016) Genome Announcements. 4(6): e01405-16. [Link]

9.      Good, C., J. Davidson, L. Iwanowicz, M. Meyer, J. Dietze, D. Kolpin, D. Marancik, C. Russell, J. Summerfelt, and S. Summerfelt (2016) Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquacultural Engineering Epub [Link]

10.  Cozzarelli, I.M., K.J. Skalak, D. B. Kent, M.A. Engle, A. Benthem, A.C. Mumford, K. Haase, A. Farag, D. Harper, S. C. Nagel, L.R. Iwanowicz, W. H. Orem, D. M.  Akob J. B. Jaeschke, J. Galloway, M. Kohler, D. L. Stoliker and G. Jolly (2016) Environmental impacts of wastewater spills in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Science of the Total Environment. 579: 1781-1793. [Link]

11.  Stavreva,DA, P Klausmeyer, AA George, L Varticovski, D Sack, TC Voss, RL Schiltz, VS Blazer, LR Iwanowicz, and GL Hager (2016) Novel Cell-based Assay for Detection of Thyroid Receptor-Interacting Chemicals. Toxicology. 368-369; 69-79. [Link]

12.  Hahn, C.M, L. R. Iwanowicz, V.S. Blazer, Heather L. Walsh, Ryan P. Braham and P. Mazik. (2016) Transcriptome Discovery in Non-Model Wild Fish Species for the Development of Quantitative Transcript Abundance Assays. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry Part D: Genomics and Proteomics. 20: 27-40. [Link]

13.  Kassotis, CD, LR Iwanowicz, DM. Akob, IM Cozzarelli, A.C. Mumford, W.H. Orem and SC Nagel (2016) Endocrine Disrupting Activities of Surface Water Associated with a West Virginia Oil and Gas Industry Wastewater Disposal Site. Science of the Total Environment. 557-558: 901-910. [Link]

14.  Bradley, P. W. Battaglin, L. Iwanowicz, J. Clark, and C. Journey (2015) Aerobic Biodegradation Potential of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Surface-Water Sediment at Rocky Mountain National Park. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 35: 1087-1096. [Link]

15.  Fischer, S.C., Reilly, T.J., Jones, D.K., Benzel, W.M., Griffin, D.W., Loftin, K.A., Iwanowicz, L.R., and Cohl, J.A., (2015) Standard operating procedure for collection of soil and sediment samples for the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1188b, 37p. [Link].

16.  Iwanowicz, L.R., V.S. Blazer, A.E. Pinkney, C.P. Guy, A.M. Major, K. Munney, S. Mierzykowski, S. Lingenfelser, A. Secord, K. Patnode, T.J. Kubiak, C. Stern, C.M. Hahn, D.D. Iwanowicz, H.L. Walsh, and A. Sperry (2016) Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: a reconnaissance study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 124:50-59. [Link]

17.  Hahn, CM, L.R. Iwanowicz, R.S. Cornman, C.M. Conway, J.R. Winton, and V.S. Blazer, (2015) Characterization of a Novel Hepadnavirus in the White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Journal of Virology. 89: 11801-11811. [Link]  

18.  Jenkins J.A., R.O. Draugelis-Dale, A.E. Pinkney, L.R. Iwanowicz, and V.S. Blazer (2015) Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Theriogenology. 83:920-931. [Link]

19.  Fischer, J.M., Phillips, P.J., Reilly, T.J., Focazio, M.J., Loftin, K.A., Benzel, W.M., Jones, D.K., Smalling, K.L., Fisher, S.C., Fisher, I.J., Iwanowicz, L.R., Romanok, K.M., Jenkins, D., Bowers, L., Boehlke, A., Foreman, W.T., Deetz, A.C., Carper, L.G., Imbrigiotta, T.E., and Birdwell, J., (2015) Estuarine bed-sediment-quality data collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 905, 42 p., plus CD-ROM. [Link]

20.  Smith, G.D., V.S. Blazer, H.L Walsh, L.R. Iwanowicz, C. Starliper, and A.J. Sperry. (2015) The effects of disease-related mortality of young-of-year Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu on population characteristics in the Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and potential implications to conservation of black bass Micropterus spp. diversity. Pages 319-332 in Tringali, M. D., M. S. Allen, T. Birdsong, and J. M. Long. 2014. Black Bass Diversity: Multidisciplinary Science for Conservation. Proceedings of the Symposium Black Bass Diversity: Multidisciplinary Science for Conservation Held in Nashville, Tennessee, February 8-10, 2013. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

21.  Reilly, T.J., Jones, D.K., Focazio, M.J., Aquino, K.C., Carbo, C.L., Kaufhold, E.E., Zinecker, E.K., Benzel, W.M., Fisher, S.C., Griffin, D.W., Iwanowicz, L.R., Loftin, K.A. and Schill, W.B., (2015) Strategy to evaluate persistent contaminant hazards resulting from sea-level rise and storm-derived disturbances—Study design and methodology for station prioritization: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1188A, 20p.  [Link]

22.  Densmore, C.L., L.R. Iwanowicz, A.P. Henderson, D.D. Iwanowicz, and J.S. Odenkirk (2015) Mycobacterial infection in Northern snakehead (Channa argus) from the Potomac River Catchment. Journal of Fish Diseases. In press [Link]

23.  Gorelick, DA., L.R. Iwanowicz, A.L. Hung, V.S. Blazer and M.E. Halpern (2014) Tissue-specific estrogen receptor activation in response to environmental endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122: 356-362. [Link]

24.  Blazer, V.S., P.M. Mazik, L.R. Iwanowicz, R. Braham, C. Hahn, H.L. Walsh, and A. Sperry (2014) Monitoring of wild fish health at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin—Methods and preliminary results: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1027, 44 p [Link]

25.  Blazer, VS, D.D. Iwanowicz, H.L. Walsh, A.J. Sperry, L.R. Iwanowicz, D.A. Alvarez, R.A. Brightbill, G. Smith and R. Manning (2014) Reproductive Health of Fishes in Pennsylvania Watersheds: Association with Chemicals of Emerging Contaminants. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 186:6471-6491. [Link]

26.  Duffy, T.A. L.R. Iwanowicz, and S.D. McCormick (2014) Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquatic Toxicology. 152C:1-10. [Link]

27.  Ottinger, C.A., D.C. Honeyfield, C.L. Densmore, and L.R. Iwanowicz (2014) In vitro immune function in thiamine-replete and -depleted Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush).Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 38:211-220. [Link]

28.  Young, J, L. Iwanowicz, V. Blazer, and A. Sperry (2014) A landscape-based reconnaissance survey of estrogenic activity in streams of the upper Potomac, upper James, and Shenandoah Rivers, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. [Link]

29.  Blazer, V.S., P.M. Mazik, L.R. Iwanowicz, R. Braham, C. Hahn, H.L. Walsh, and A. Sperry (2014). Assessment of the fish tumor beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at selected Great Lakes Areas of Concern. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1105, 17 p. [Link]

30.  Iwanowicz, L.R., J. Stafford, R. Patino, E. Bengten, N.W. Miller, and V. Blazer (2014) Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 40: 109-119. [Link]

31.  Iwanowicz, L, C Densmore, C Hahn, P McAllister and J Odenkirk (2013) Identification of Largemouth Bass Virus in the Introduced Northern snakehead (Channa argus) inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 25:191-196. [Link]

32.  Starliper, C., VS Blazer, LR Iwanowicz, and HL Walsh (2013) Bacterial etiology in diseased fishes, primarily smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, within the Chesapeake Bay drainage in 2009-2011. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science85(2):18-32.

33.  Iwanowicz, DD, L.R. Iwanowicz, E.W. Howerth, W.B Schill, V.S. Blazer and R. Johnson (2013) Characterization of Myxobolus stanlii n sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae: Myxosporea) in largescale stonerollers (Campostoma oligolepis) from the Mobile River Basin. Journal of Parasitology. 99:102-111

34.  Kolpin, DW, VS Blazer, JL Gray, MJ Focazio, JA Young, DA Alvarez, LR Iwanowicz, WT Foreman, ET Furlong, GK Speiran, SD Zaugg, LE Hubbard, MT Meyer, MW Sandstrom, LB Barber (2013) Chemical Contaminants in Water and Sediment near fish nesting sites in the Potomac River Basin: Determining Potential Exposures to Smallmouth Bass(Micropterus dolomieu). Science of the Total Environment. 443C: 700-716 [Link]

35.  Blazer, VS, AE Pinkney, JA Jenkins, LR Iwanowicz, S Minkkinen, RO Draugelis-Dale and JH Uphoff (2013) Reproductive Health of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in Selected Tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Science of the Total Environment. 447:198-209 [Link]

36.  Iwanowicz. D.D., L.R. Iwanowicz, N. Hitt, T.L. King (2013) Differential expression profiles of miRNA in the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with White Nose affected and unaffected individuals. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1099, 11 p., [Link]

37.  Ekman, DR, GT Ankley, VS Blazer, TW Collette, N Garcia-Reyero, LR Iwanowicz, ZG Jorgenson, KE Lee, PM Mazik, DH Miller, EJ Perkins, ET Smith, JE Tiege and D Villeneuve (2013) Biological Effects-based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative.Environmental Practice. 15: 409-426. [Link]

38.  Starliper, C., VS Blazer, LR Iwanowicz, and HL Walsh. (2013) Bacterial etiology in diseased fishes, primarily smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, within the Chesapeake Bay drainage in 2009-2011. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science. 85(2):18-32

39.  Iwanowicz, L.R., Blazer, V.S., Hitt, N.P., McCormick, S.D., DuVault, D.S., Ottinger, C.A. (2012) Histologic, Immunologic and Endocrine Biomarkers Indicate Contaminant Effects in Fishes of the Ashtabula River. Ecotoxicology. 21(1): 654-182. [Link]

40.  Stavreva, DA, P Klausmeyer, AA George, L Varticovski, D Sack, TC Voss, RL Schiltz, VS Blazer, LR Iwanowicz, and GL Hager (2012) Prevalent Glucocorticoid and Androgen Activity in US Water Sources. Scientific Reports. 2: 937 [Link]

41.  Walsh, HL, VS Blazer, LR Iwanowicz, G Smith (2012) A Redescription of Myxobolus inornatus from Young-of-the-Year Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Journal of Parasitology. 98:1236-1242 [Link]

42.  Ottinger, C.A., D. Honeyfield, C.L. Densmore, L.R. Iwanowicz. (2012) Impact of Thiamine Deficiency on T-cell Dependent and T-cell Independent Antibody Production in Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 24: 258-273. [Link]

43.  Walsh, HL, LR Iwanowicz, GW Glenney, DD Iwanowicz, VS Blazer (2012) Description of Two New Gill Myxozoans from Smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and Largemouth (M. salmoides) Bass. Journal of Parasitology. 98: 415-422. [Link]

44.  Ciparis, S, LR Iwanowicz and JR Voshell (2012) Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams. Science of the Total Environment, 414: 268-276. [Link]

45.  Iwanowicz, LR and VS Blazer (2011) A brief overview of estrogen-associated endocrine in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology. In: R. C. Cipriano, A. Bruckner and I. S. Shchelkunov, Editors, Aquatic Animal Health: A Continuing Dialogue Between Russia and The United States. Proceedings of the Third Bilateral Conference Between the United States and Russia: Aquatic Animal Health 2009. July 12-20, 2009. Shepherdstown, WV. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.[Link]

46.  Blazer, V.S., Iwanowicz, L.R., Henderson, H., Mazik, P.M., Jenkins, J.A., Alvarez, D.A., and Young, J.A. (2011) Reproductive endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Potomac River basin: spatial and temporal comparisons of biological effects Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184: 4309-4334. [Link]

47.  Bykova, L., S.A. Archer-Hartmann, L.A. Holland, L.R. Iwanowicz, and V.S. Blazer (2010) Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29:1950-1956. [Link]

48.  Blazer, V.S., L.R. Iwanowicz, C.E. Starliper, D.D. Iwanowicz, P. Barbash, J.D. Hedrick, S.J. Reeser, J.E. Mullican, S.D. Zaugg, M.R. Burkhardt and J. Kelble (2010) Mortality of Centrarchids in the Potomac Drainage: Survey of Results and Overview of Potential Contributing Factors. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 22: 190-218. [Link]

49.  Ripley, J.L, L.R. Iwanowicz, V.S. Blazer and C.M. Foran. (2009) Author’s Response to If Poultry's to Blame, Where's the Proof? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 28: 908-909. [Link]

50.  Alvarez, D.A., Cranor, W.L., Perkins, S.D., Schroeder, V., Iwanowicz, L.R., Clark, R.C., Guy, C.P., Pinkney, A., Blazer, VS. (2009) Reproductive Health of Bass in the Potomac Drainage: 2) Seasonal Occurrence of Persistent and Emerging Organic Contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 28: 1084-1095. [Link]

51.  Iwanowicz, L.R., Blazer, V.S., Guy, C.P., Pinkney, A.E. Mullican, J. and Alvarez. D.A. (2009) Reproductive Health of Bass in the Potomac Drainage: 1) Biological Effects of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 28: 1072-1083. [Link]

52.  Robertson, L.S., Iwanowicz, L.R., and Marranca, J.M. (2009) Identification of Centrarchid Hepcidins and Evidence that 17β-Estradiol Disrupts Constitutive Expression of Hepcidin-1 and Inducible Expression of Hepcidin-2 in Largemouth Bass. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 26; 898–907. [Link]

53.  Iwanowicz, L.R., V.S. Blazer, S.D. McCormick, P. Van Veld, C.A. Ottinger. (2009) Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosusAquatic Toxicology. 93: 70-82. [Link]

54.  Iwanowicz, L.R., D.D. Cartwright, L.M. Pote, V.S. Blazer, W.B. Schill (2008) Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina, USA. Journal of Parasitology. 94: 46-57. [Link]

55.  Ripley, J.L, L.R. Iwanowicz, V.S. Blazer and C.M. Foran. (2008) Utilization of Protein Profiles as Indicators of Environmental Impairment of Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from the Shenandoah River, VA, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 27: 1756-1767. [Link]

56.  Blazer,V.S., L.R. Iwanowicz, D.D. Iwanowicz, D.R. Smith, J.A. Young, J. Hedrick, S. W. Foster, S. J. Reeser. (2007) Intersex (Testicular Oocytes) in Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu From the Potomac River and Selected Nearby Drainages. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 19: 242-253. [Link]

57.  Iwanowicz, L.R., A.R. Griffin, D.D. Cartwright, V.S. Blazer (2006) Mortality and pathology in brown bullheads Amieurus nebulosus associated with a spontaneous Edwardsiella ictaluri outbreak under tank culture conditions. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 70: 219-225. [Link]

58.  Iwanowicz,L.R., D.T. Lerner, V.S. Blazer and S.D. McCormick (2005) Aqueous Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Modulates the Mitogenic Response of Atlantic Salmon Anterior Kidney T-cells: indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation. Aquatic Toxicology. 72: 305-314. [Link]

59.  Densmore, C., C.A. Ottinger, V.S. Blazer L.R. Iwanowicz and David R. Smith (2004) Immunomodulation and disease resistance in postyearling rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 16: 73-82. [Link]

60.  Iwanowicz, L., L Brown, B Eltz, F Juanes and J Murt (2004) Book Review. In a Perfect Ocean: The state of fisheries and ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries.14: 149-151. [Link]

61.  Iwanowicz, L., C Densmore and C Ottinger (2004) Calcein AM released-based cytotoxic cell assay for fish leucocytes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 16: 127 - 137. [Link]

62.  McIntire, M., L R Iwanowicz and A E Goodwin (2003) Molecular, physical and clinical evidence that Golden Shiner Virus (GSV) and Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) are variants of the same virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 15: 257-263. [Link]

63.  Iwanowicz, L.R. and A E Goodwin (2002) Characterization of a new bacilliform fathead minnow rhabdovirus that produces syncytia in tissue culture. Archives of Virology 147: 889 – 916. [Link]

64.  Iwanowicz, L.R. A E Goodwin and J Harshbarger (2001) Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the giant gourami, Colisa fasciata (Bloch & Schneider). Journal of Fish Diseases24:177-179. [Link]

Iwanowicz, L.R. A E Goodwin and N Heil (2000) A small RNA virus isolated from apparently healthy wild sandbar shiners, Notropis scepticusJournal of Fish Diseases 23: 349-352. [Link]



Iwanowicz, L.R and C.A. Ottinger (2009) Estrogens, Estrogen Receptors and Their Role as Immunoregulators in Fish.  In Fish Defenses, Volume 1: Immunology. Eds. G. Zaccone, J. Meseguer, A. Garcia-Ayala, and B.G. Kapoor. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA. Pp. 277-322. [Link]