Unified Interior Regions

Region 10: California-Great Basin

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Filter Total Items: 144
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Year Published: 2020

Internal tides can provide thermal refugia that will buffer some coral reefs from future global warming

Observations show ocean temperatures are rising due to climate change, resulting in a fivefold increase in the incidence of regional-scale coral bleaching events since the 1980s; analyses based on global climate models forecast bleaching will become an annual event for most of the world’s coral reefs within 30–50 yr. Internal waves at tidal...

Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia; Van Hooidonk, Ruben; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Brainard, Russell E.

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Year Published: 2020

Large-scale erosion driven by intertidal eelgrass loss in an estuarine environment

Seagrasses influence local hydrodynamics by inducing drag on the flow and dampening near-bed velocities and wave energy. When seagrasses are lost, near-bed currents and wave energy can increase, which enhances bottom shear stresses, destabilizes sediment, and promotes suspension and erosion. Though seagrasses are being lost rapidly globally, the...

Walter, Ryan K.; O’Leary, Jenifer K.; Vitousek, Sean; Taherkhani, Mohsen; Geraghty, Carolyn; Kitajima, Ann

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Year Published: 2020

The importance of explicitly modelling sea-swell waves for runup on reef-lined coasts

The importance of explicitly modelling sea-swell waves for runup was examined using a 2D XBeach short wave-averaged (surfbeat, “XB-SB”) and a wave-resolving (non-hydrostatic, “XB-NH”) model of Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of Marshall Islands. Field observations on water levels, wave heights, and wave runup were used to drive...

Quataert, Ellen; Storlazzi, Curt D.; van Dongeren, Ap; McCall, Robert T.

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Year Published: 2020

On the use of receiver operating character tests for evaluating spatial earthquake forecasts

Spatial forecasts of triggered earthquake distributions have been ranked using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) tests. The test is a binary comparison between regions of positive and negative forecast against positive and negative presence of earthquakes. Forecasts predicting only positive changes score higher than Coulomb methods, which...

Parsons, Thomas E.

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Year Published: 2020

Distribution of earthquakes on a branching fault system using integer programming and greedy sequential methods

A new global optimization method is used to determine the distribution of earthquakes on a complex, connected fault system. The method, integer programming, has been advanced in the field of operations research, but has not been widely applied to geophysical problems until recently. In this application, we determine the optimal distribution of...

Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

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Year Published: 2020

Shoreline retreat of the Corte Madera marshes, 1853 to 2016, Marin County, California

The greater San Francisco Bay estuary, prior to human intervention, encompassed about 2,200 km2 of tidal and salt marshes. Over time, these areas became increasingly diked, developed, and altered from their natural state. In addition, natural forces are always driving a continually shifting equilibrium.This study area, the Corte Madera marshes, is...

Carkin, Bradley A.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wong, Florence L.
Carkin, Bradley A., Kayen, Robert E., and Wong, Florence L., 2020, Shoreline retreat of the Corte Madera marshes, 1853 to 2016, Marin County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1074, 36 p., 6 appendixes, https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201074.

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Year Published: 2020

A holistic modelling approach to project the evolution of inlet-interrupted coastlines over the 21st century

Approximately one quarter of the World’s sandy beaches, most of which are interrupted by tidal inlets, are eroding. Understanding the long-term (50-100 year) evolution of inlet-interrupted coasts in a changing climate is therefore of great importance for coastal zone planners and managers. This study therefore focuses on the development and...

Bamunawala, Janaka; Dastgheib, Ali; Ranasinghe, Rosh; van der Spek, Ad; Maskey, Shreedhar; Murray, A. Brad; Duong, Trang M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Sirisena, Jeewanthi Gangani

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Year Published: 2020

Morphology, structure, and kinematics of the San Clemente and Catalina faults based on high-resolution marine geophysical data, southern California Inner Continental Borderland

Catalina Basin, located within the southern California Inner Continental Borderland (ICB), is traversed by two active submerged fault systems that are part of the broader North America-Pacific plate boundary: the San Clemente fault (along with a prominent splay, the Kimki fault) and the Catalina fault. Previous studies have suggested that the San...

Walton, Maureen A. L.; Brothers, Daniel; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Roland, Emily C.; Kluesner, Jared; Dartnell, Peter

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Year Published: 2020

In situ observations of wave transformation and infragravity bore development across reef flats of varying geomorphology

The character and energetics of infragravity (IG, 25 s < period < 250 s) and very-low frequency (VLF, period > 250 s) waves over coral reef flats can enhance shoreline erosion or accretion, and also govern extreme shoreline events such as runup, overwash, and flooding on coral reef-lined coasts. Here we use in situ wave measurements...

Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

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Year Published: 2020

Selective sediment transport during Hurricane Sandy on Fire Island (New York, USA): Inferences from heavy-mineral assemblages

In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe erosion on beaches and dunes of Fire Island (New York, USA). Major shoreline changes occurred with erosional dominance in the upper shoreline and aggradation in the lowermost section of the beach due to the deposition of eroded upper beach and dune sediment. Sand laminations with a high concentration...

Cascalho, João; Costa, Pedro; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, Seanpaul; Jaffe, Bruce E.

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Year Published: 2020

Structural controls on slope failure within the western Santa Barbara Channel based on 2D and 3D seismic imaging

The Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California, contains several submarine landslides and ample evidence for incipient failure. This region hosts active thrust and reverse faults that accommodate several mm/yr of convergence, yet the relationships between tectonic deformation and slope failure remain unclear. We present 3‐D and 2‐D multichannel...

Kluesner, Jared; Brothers, Daniel; Wright, Alexis L; Johnson, Samuel Y.