In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Environmental Health Mission Area, initiated the Tapwater Exposure Study as part of an infrastructure project to assess human exposure to potential threats from complex mixtures of contaminants. In the pilot phase (2016), samples were collected from 11 States throughout the United States, and in the second phase (2017), the study focused on the Greater Chicago area, including North and South Chicago, Illinois, and East Chicago, Indiana. Residential tapwater samples were collected at private residences during both phases, and during the first phase, samples were collected from Federal office buildings and from one office 19-liter water-bottle source. During the second phase, raw intake and treated (pre-distributional) water samples also were collected from four drinking-water treatment facilities in the Greater Chicago area. Samples were sent to laboratories at the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Colorado School of Mines Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, for potential drinking-water pathogens, chemical, and bioassay analyses. These analyses included more than 400 chemicals such as trace elements, steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances, cyanotoxins, and other organic compounds. The in vitro bioassay analyses included estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptor activity.
|Title||Methods used for the collection and analysis of chemical and biological data for the Tapwater Exposure Study, United States, 2016–17|
|Authors||Kristin M. Romanok, Dana W. Kolpin, Shannon M. Meppelink, Maria Argos, Juliane B. Brown, Michael J. Devito, Julie E. Dietze, Carrie E. Givens, James L. Gray, Christopher P. Higgins, Michelle L. Hladik, Luke R. Iwanowicz, Keith A. Loftin, R. Blaine McCleskey, Carrie A. McDonough, Michael T. Meyer, Mark J. Strynar, Christopher P. Weis, Vickie S. Wilson, Paul M. Bradley|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||National Water Quality Laboratory; South Atlantic Water Science Center; Central Midwest Water Science Center|