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Managed aquifer recharge suitability—Regional screening and case studies in Jordan and Lebanon

The U.S. Geological Survey, at the request of the U.S. Agency for International Development, led a 5-year regional project to develop and apply methods for water availability and suitability mapping for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in the Middle East and North Africa region. A regional model of surface runoff for the period from 1984 to 2015 was developed to characterize water availability using

Indonesia and the United States team up to reduce impacts from dangerous volcanoes

With 75 historically active volcanoes, Indonesia is the world’s most volcanically active nation. Its volcanoes are legendary throughout the world, with the notorious 19th-century eruptions at Mount Tambora (1815) and Krakatau (1883), and the eruption that created the giant Toba Caldera in Sumatra (75,000 years ago)—the Earth’s largest volcanic eruption in the past 100,000 years. Just in the past 2

Hydrogeologic framework and simulation of predevelopment groundwater flow, eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Groundwater in eastern Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is an important resource that is widely used for irrigation and domestic supplies in rural areas. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Environment Agency—Abu Dhabi cooperated on an investigation to integrate existing hydrogeologic information and to answer questions about regional groundwater resources in Abu Dhabi by developing a numerica

Improving our understanding of hydraulic-electrical relations: A case study of the surficial aquifer in Emirate Abu Dhabi

Transmissivity is a bulk hydraulic property that can be correlated with bulk electrical properties of an aquifer. In aquifers that are electrically-resistive relative to adjacent layers in a horizontally stratified sequence, transmissivity has been shown to correlate with bulk transverse resistance. Conversely, in aquifers that are electrically-conductive relative to adjacent layers, transmissivit

Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

Bauxite-bearing rocks are present in several regions of Afghanistan; specifically, the southeast segment of the North Afghanistan Platform, the eastern parts of South Afghanistan, and within the Afghanistan-North and -South Pamir Fold Regions. Bauxite-bearing rocks occur at various stratigraphic levels, in lithologically different sequences of sedimentary rocks. The bauxites are paleosols and repr

Geologic map of the Ahankashan-Rakhna basin, Badghis, Ghor, and Herat Provinces, Afghanistan, modified from the 1974 original map compilation of Y.I. Shcherbina and others

This geologic map of the Ahankashan-Rakhna basin, Afghanistan, is a redrafted and modified version of the Geological map of the area of Ahankashan-Rakhna basin, scale 1:50,000 and Geological map of the Ahankashan area with data on mineral resources, scale 1:12,000 from Shcherbina and others (1974) (Soviet report no. 0822). That unpublished Soviet report contains the original maps and cross section

Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side

Atmospheric bromine flux from the coastal Abu Dhabi sabkhat: A ground-water mass-balance investigation

A solute mass-balance study of ground water of the 3000 km2 coastal sabkhat (salt flats) of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, documents an annual bromide loss of approximately 255 metric tons (0.0032 Gmoles), or 85 kg/km2. This value is an order of magnitude greater than previously published direct measurements from the atmosphere over an evaporative environment of a salar in Bolivia

Source of solutes to the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi

An ascending-brine model is proposed to address the observed isotope geochemistry, solute composition, and solute and water fluxes in the coastal sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Mass-balance measurements document that >95% of the solutes are derived from ascending continental brines; minor amounts are derived from rainfall and from groundwater entering from upgradient areas. Nearly 100% of the

Hydrology of the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Water fluxes were estimated and a water budget developed for the land surface and a surficial 10-m-deep section of the coastal sabkhas that extend from the city of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, west to the border with Saudi Arabia. The fluxes were estimated on the basis of water levels and hydraulic conductivities measured in wells and evaporation rates measured with a humidity chamber. In cont

Change analysis in the United Arab Emirates: An investigation of techniques

Much of the landscape of the United Arab Emirates has been transformed over the past 15 years by massive afforestation, beautification, and agricultural programs. The "greening" of the United Arab Emirates has had environmental consequences, however, including degraded groundwater quality and possible damage to natural regional ecosystems. Personnel from the Ground- Water Research project, a joint