Volcano Hazards Program Office

Publications

Filter Total Items: 2,185
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Year Published: 2020

Simultaneous Middle Pleistocene eruption of three widespread tholeiitic basalts in northern California (USA): Insights into crustal magma transport in an actively extending back arc

Mapping and chronology are central to understanding spatiotemporal volcanic trends in diverse tectonic settings. The Cascades back arc in northern California (USA) hosts abundant lava flows and normal faults, but tholeiitic basalts older than 200 ka are difficult to discriminate by classic mapping methods. Paleomagnetism and chemistry offer...

Downs, Drew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Christiansen, Robert L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.

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Year Published: 2020

Generalized models to estimate carbon and nitrogen stocks of organic soil horizons in Interior Alaska

Boreal ecosystems comprise one tenth of the world’s land surface and contain over 20 % of the global soil carbon (C) stocks. Boreal soils are unique in that its mineral soil is covered by what can be quite thick layers of organic soil. These organic soil layers, or horizons, can differ in their state of decomposition, source vegetation, and...

Manies, Kristen L.; Waldrop, Mark; Harden, Jennifer W.

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Year Published: 2020

Latest Pleistocene to present geology of Mount Baker Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Washington

Mount Baker is the prominent andesitic stratocone that forms the youngest volcanic center in the Mount Baker volcanic field. Its heavily glaciated cone, rising to 3,286 meters, is an international landmark, dominating the skyline of Vancouver, British Columbia, even though the volcano is located 25 kilometers south of the international border....

Scott, Kevin M.; Tucker, David S.; Riedel, Jon L.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; McGeehin, John P.
Scott, K.M., Tucker, D.S., Riedel, J.L., Gardner, C.A., and McGeehin, J.P., 2020, Latest Pleistocene to present geology of Mount Baker Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1865, 170 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1865.

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Year Published: 2020

Observations of an extreme atmospheric river storm with a diverse sensor network

Observational networks enhance real‐time situational awareness for emergency and water resource management during extreme weather events. We present examples of how a diverse, multitiered observational network in California provided insights into hydrometeorological processes and impacts during a 3‐day atmospheric river storm centered on 14...

Hatchett, Benjamin J.; Cao, Q.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Ellis, C. J.; Hecht, C. W.; Kawzenuk, B.; Lancaster, J. T.; Osborne, T. C.; Wilson, A. M.; Anderson, M. L.; Dettinger, M. D.; Kalansky, J. F.; Kaplan, M. L.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Oakley, N. S.; Ralph, R. M.; Reynolds, D. W.; White, A. B.; Sierks, M.; Sumargo, E.

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Year Published: 2020

Caldera collapse geometry revealed by near‐field GPS displacements at Kilauea Volcano in 2018

We employ near‐field GPS data to determine the subsurface geometry of a collapsing caldera during the 2018 Kīlauea eruption. Collapse occurred in 62 discrete events, with “inflationary” deformation external to the collapse, similar to previous basaltic collapses. We take advantage of GPS data from the collapsing block and independent constraints...

Segall, Paul; Anderson, Kyle R.; Pulvirenti, Fabio; Wang, Taiyi; Johanson, Ingrid

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Year Published: 2020

Dating silica sinter (geyserite): A cautionary tale

We describe a new effort to date hydrothermal silica sinter deposits (geyserite) from the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park using 14C of co-deposited organic matter, U-series and cosmogenic 10Be methods. A majority of the samples were collected from stratigraphic sections, mainly at Riverside, Giant, and Castle Geysers. Ages obtained...

Churchill, Dakota M.; Manga, Michael; Hurwitz, Shaul; Peek, Sara; Licciardi, Joseph; Paces, James

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Year Published: 2020

Interpreting and reporting 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data

The 40Ar/39Ar dating method is among the most versatile of geochronometers, having the potential to date a broad variety of K-bearing materials spanning from the time of Earth’s formation into the historical realm. Measurements using modern noble-gas mass spectrometers are now producing 40Ar/39Ar dates with analytical uncertainties of ∼0.1%,...

Schaen, Allen J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Hodges, Kip V.; Vermeesch, Pieter; Stelten, Mark E.; Mercer, Cameron M.; Phillips, David; Rivera, Tiffany; Jourdan, Fred; Matchan, Erin L.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Morgan, Leah E.; Kelley, Simon P.; Cassata, William S.; Heizler, Matt T.; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Benowitz, Jeff A.; Koppers, Anthony A.P. ; Mark, Darren F.; Niespolo, Elizabeth M.; Courtney J. Sprain; Hames, William E.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Turrin, Brent D.; Renne, Paul R.; Ross, Jake; Nomade, Sebastian; Guillou, Hervé; Webb, Laura E.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Joyce, Nancy; Ganderød, Morgan; Wijbrans, Jan; Ishizuka, Osamu; He, Huaiyu; Ramirez, Adán; Pfänder, Jörg; Lopez-Martínez, Margarita; Qiu, Huaning; Singer, Brad S.

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Year Published: 2020

Quantifying gas emissions associated with the 2018 rift eruption of Kīlauea Volcano using ground-based DOAS measurements

Starting on 3 May 2018, a series of eruptive fissures opened in Kīlauea Volcano’s lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). Over the course of the next 3 months, intense degassing accompanied lava effusion from these fissures. Here, we report on ground-based observations of the gas emissions associated with Kīlauea’s 2018 eruption. Visual observations combined...

Kern, Christoph; Lerner, Allan; Elias, Tamar; Nadeau, Patricia; Holland, Lacey; Kelly, Peter J.; Cynthia Werner; Clor, Laura E.; Cappos, Michael

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Year Published: 2020

The prevalence and significance of offset magma reservoirs at arc volcanoes

Determining the spatial relations between volcanic edifices and their underlying magma storage zones is fundamental for characterizing long-term evolution and short-term unrest. We compile centroid locations of upper crustal magma reservoirs at 56 arc volcanoes inferred from seismic, magnetotelluric, and geodetic studies. We show that magma...

Lerner, Allan H.; O'Hara, Daniel; Karlstrom, Leif; Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Hurwitz, Shaul

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Year Published: 2020

Observations on the structure of Surtsey

Comparison of investigations of the 1979 and 2017 cored boreholes coupled with continued observations of the dynamic surface of Surtsey has modified our concepts of the subsurface structure of the volcano. A geometrical analysis of the 2017 vertical and inclined cores indicates that near-surface layering dips westerly, indicating that the...

Moore, James G.; Jackson, Marie D.

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Year Published: 2020

Source model for Sabancaya volcano constrained by DInSAR and GNSS surface deformation observation

Sabancaya is the most active volcano of the Ampato-Sabancaya Volcanic Complex (ASVC) in southern Perú and has been erupting since 2016. The analysis of ascending and descending Sentinel-1 orbits (DInSAR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) datasets from 2014 to 2019 imaged a radially symmetric inflating area, uplifting at a rate of 35 to...

Boixart, Gregorio; Cruz, Luis; Miranda, Rafael; Euillades, Pablo; Euillades, Leonardo; Battaglia, Maurizio

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Year Published: 2020

Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter and postglacial hydrothermal activity in the El Tatio geyser field

The El Tatio geothermal field in the Chilean Altiplano contains hydrothermal silica sinter deposits overlaying glacial and volcanic units, providing an opportunity to constrain the timing of deglaciation and volcanic activity in an area with sparse absolute chronologies. We obtained 51 new radiocarbon ages and δ13C values on the organic...

Munoz Saez, Carolina; Manga, Michael; Hurwitz, Shaul; Salgter, Silvina; Churchill, Dakota; Reich, Martin; Damby, David; Morata, Diego