Volcano Hazards Program Office

Publications

Filter Total Items: 2,094
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Year Published: 2020

Seismic velocity variations associated with the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea, Hawaiʻi

The 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea (Hawai‘i) marked a dramatic change in the volcano’s 35-year-long rift zone eruption. The collapse of the middle East Rift Zone vent Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō was followed by one of the volcano’s most voluminous eruptions in 500 years. Over the course of this 3-month eruption, the draining of summit-stored magma...

Flinders, Ashton; Caudron, Corentin; Johanson, Ingrid; Taira, Taka'aki; Shiro, Brian; Haney, Matthew M.

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Year Published: 2020

Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption

Mount St. Helens was once enjoyed for its serene beauty and was considered one of America’s most majestic volcanoes because of its perfect cone shape, similar to Japan’s beloved Mount Fuji. Nearby residents assumed that the mountain was solid and enduring. That perception changed during the early spring of 1980. Then, on May 18, 1980,...

Driedger, Carolyn L.; Major, Jon J.; Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Moran, Seth C.; Westby, Elizabeth G.; Ewert, John W.
Driedger, C.L., Major, J.J., Pallister, J.S., Clynne, M.A., Moran, S.C., Westby, E.G., and Ewert, J.W., 2020, Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020-3031, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203031.

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Year Published: 2020

Deep long-period earthquakes generated by second boiling beneath Mauna Kea volcano

Deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) are an enigmatic type of volcanic seismicity that sometimes precedes eruptions but mostly occurs at quiescent volcanoes. These earthquakes are depleted in high-frequency content and typically occur near the base of the crust. We observed a near-periodic, long- lived sequence of more than one million DLPs in the...

Wech, Aaron; Thelen, Weston; Thomas, Amanda

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Year Published: 2020

Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015

Five volcanic-hydrothermal systems in the central Aleutians Islands were sampled for water and gas geochemistry in 2015 to provide baseline data to help predict future volcanic unrest. Some areas had not been sampled in 20–30 years (Makushin volcano, Geyser Bight), and other areas had minimal to no prior sampling (Tana volcano and Fisher Caldera...

Werner, Cynthia A.; Kern, Christoph; Kelly, Peter J.
Werner, C., Kern, C., and Kelly, P. K., 2020, Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020–5043, 35 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20205043.

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Year Published: 2020

Geologic map of the southern flank of Mauna Loa Volcano, Island of Hawai‘i, Hawaii

On the Island of Hawaiʻi, Mauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions began with only brief seismic unrest, whereas others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity. Once underway, its eruptions can produce lava flows that may reach the sea in...

Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.
Trusdell, F.A., and Lockwood, J.P., 2020, Geologic map of the southern flank of Mauna Loa Volcano, Island of Hawai‘i, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2932–C, pamphlet 28 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:50,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim2932C.

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Year Published: 2020

Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015

Five volcanic-hydrothermal systems in the central Aleutians Islands were sampled for water and gas geochemistry in 2015 to provide baseline data to help predict future volcanic unrest. Some areas had not been sampled in 20–30 years (Makushin volcano, Geyser Bight), and other areas had minimal to no prior sampling (Tana volcano and Fisher Caldera...

Werner, Cynthia; Kern, Christoph; Kelly, Peter J.
Werner, C., Kern, C., and Kelly, P. K., 2020, Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020–1029, 35 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20201029.

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Year Published: 2020

Lessons from a post-eruption landscape

From March to May 1980, magma rose high into Mount St. Helens (MSH), swelling and—as it turned out—destabilizing its north flank. Scientists knew the volcano had been highly active at times over the past 40,000 years, but the mountain, located amid the Cascade Range in southwestern Washington, had been mostly quiet since the mid-19th century. The...

Major, Jon J.; Crisafulli, Charles M.; Swanson, Frederick J.

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Year Published: 2020

Indonesia and the United States team up to reduce impacts from dangerous volcanoes

With 75 historically active volcanoes, Indonesia is the world’s most volcanically active nation. Its volcanoes are legendary throughout the world, with the notorious 19th-century eruptions at Mount Tambora (1815) and Krakatau (1883), and the eruption that created the giant Toba Caldera in Sumatra (75,000 years ago)—the Earth’s largest volcanic...

Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Kasbani; Pallister, John S.; Ramsey, David W.
Lowenstern, J.B., Kasbani, Pallister, J.S., and Ramsey, D.W., 2020, Indonesia and the United States team up to reduce impacts from dangerous volcanoes: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2019–3074, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20193074.

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Year Published: 2020

A multidecade analysis of fluvial geomorphic evolution of the Spirit Lake blockage, Mount St. Helens, Washington

Volcanic eruptions can affect landscapes in many ways and consequently alter erosion and the fluxes of water and sediment. Hydrologic and geomorphic responses to volcanic disturbances are varied in both space and time, and, in some instances, can persist for decades to centuries. Understanding the broad context of how landscapes respond to...

Major, Jon J.; Grant, Gordon E.; Sweeney, Kristin; Mosbrucker, Adam R.
Major, J.J., Grant, G.E., Sweeney, K., and Mosbrucker, A.R., 2020, A multidecade analysis of fluvial geomorphic evolution of the Spirit Lake blockage, Mount St. Helens, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020-5027, 54 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20205027.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic and geodetic progression of the 2018 summit caldera collapse of Kīlauea Volcano

The 2018 eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaiʻi, resulted in a major collapse of the summit caldera along with an effusive eruption in the lower East Rift Zone. The caldera collapse comprised 62 highly similar collapse cycles of strong ground deformation and earthquake swarms that ended with a magnitude 5 collapse event and one partial cycle that...

Tepp, Gabrielle; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Shiro, Brian; Johanson, Ingrid; Thelen, Weston; Haney, Matthew M.

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Year Published: 2020

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory news media management guide—General protocols and templates

This guide describes general protocols and provides templates for news media management at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) and is intended for use by the CVO scientist-in-charge, communications staff, scientists, and guest communications colleagues. This public version, with CVO names and contact...

Driedger, Carolyn L.; Westby, Elizabeth G.
Driedger, C.L., and Westby, E.G., 2020, USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory news media management guide—General protocols and templates: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1462, 46 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1462.

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Year Published: 2020

Geologic map of the Bonanza caldera area, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

The San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado have long been known as a site of exceptionally voluminous mid-Tertiary volcanism, including at least 22 major ignimbrite sheets (each 150–5,000 km³) and associated caldera structures active at 34–23 Ma. Recent volcanologic and petrologic studies in the San Juan region have focused mainly on several...

Lipman, Peter W.
Lipman, P.W., 2020, Geologic map of the Bonanza caldera area, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3394, pamphlet 73 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:50,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3394.