Gregory Noe

Research Interests:

Wetland ecosystem ecology, focusing on the interactive influences of hydrology, geomorphology, climate, and biology on nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and sediment biogeochemistry and transport in fluvial ecosystems, as well as plant community ecology and restoration ecology.


Greg Noe has been a Research Ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Mission Area in Reston, VA since 2002, where he leads the Wetland Ecosystem Ecology & Biogeochemistry Laboratory (WEEBL). Dr. Noe’s research centers on wetland ecosystem ecology, focusing on the interactive influences of geomorphology, hydrology, climate, and biology on nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in fluvial ecosystems, as well as plant community ecology and restoration ecology. His dissertation research identified the complex controls on annual plant germination in the salt marshes of southern California. This was followed by post-doctoral research on phosphorus biogeochemistry and enrichment effects in the Florida Everglades. When joining the USGS, he started a research program on nutrient cycling, transport, and retention in wetlands associated with flowing waters. This work includes quantifying nutrient retention by riverine floodplains from site to watershed scales with study sites located in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Louisiana; the effect of sea level rise and salinification on tidal freshwater forested wetland ecosystem resilience in Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia; phosphorus and sediment transport research in the Florida Everglades; and studies of nutrient dynamics and trapping in created mitigation bank wetlands located in Virginia, stream restoration projects in North Carolina, and floodplain restoration in Maryland. He is currently serving on the editorial board of Wetlands and previously of Wetlands Ecology and Management, is the past Chair of the South Atlantic Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, the recipient of the President's Service Award from the Society of Wetland Scientists, and has served on the program committees of national and international scientific conferences.  Greg is a recipient of the Meritorius Service Award from the Department of the Interior.


Current focus areas:

-Measuring and modeling the effects of floodplains on sediment and nutrient transport in watersheds

-Sea level rise and watershed impacts to the resilience and water quality functions of tidal freshwater wetlands

-Quantifying the water quality benefits of wetland restoration and creation and how to optimize their design



Noe, G.B., M. Fellows, L. Parsons, J. West, J. Callaway, S. Trnka, M. Wegener, and J. Zedler.  2019.  Adaptive management assists reintroduction as higher tides threaten an endangered salt marsh plant.  Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1002/REC.12934

Hupp, C., D. Kroes, G. Noe, E. Schenk, and R. Day.  2019.  Sediment trapping and carbon sequestration in floodplains of the lower Atchafalaya Basin, LA: Allochthonous vs. autochthonous carbon sources.  JGR Biogeosciences 124: 663-677.

Korol, A., G. Noe, and C. Ahn.  2019.  Controls of the spatial variability of denitrification potential in nontidal floodplains of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA.  Geoderma 228: 14-29.

Cashman, M.J., A. Gellis, L. Gorman Sanisaca, G. Noe, V. Cogliandro, and A. Baker. 2018. Bank‐derived material dominates fluvial sediment in a suburban Chesapeake Bay watershed.River Research and Applications 43: 1032-1044.

Hopkins, K., G. Noe, F. Franco, E. Pindilli, S. Gordon, M. Metes, P. Claggett, A. Gellis, C. Hupp, and D. Hogan.  2018.  A method to quantity and value floodplain sediment and nutrient retention ecosystem services.  Journal of Environmental Management 220:65-76.

Krauss, K.W., G.B. Noe, J.A. Duberstein, W.H. Conner, C.L. Stagg, N. Cormier, M.C. Jones, C.J. Bernhardt, A.S. From, T.W. Doyle, S.H. Ensign, K.N. Pierfelice, C.R. Hupp, A.T. Chow, J.L. Whitbeck, and L.W. Inabinette.  2018.  The role of the upper tidal estuary in wetland blue carbon storage and flux.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 32

Gillespie, J.L., G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, A.C. Gellis, and E.R. Schenk.  2018.  Floodplain trapping and cycling compared to streambank erosion of sediment and nutrients in an agricultural watershed.  Journal of the American Water Resources Association 54: 565-582.

Batzer, D., G. Noe, L. Lee, and M. Galatowitsch.  2018.  A floodplain continuum for Atlantic coast rivers of the Southeastern US: predictable changes in floodplain biota along a river's length [Mark Brinson Review].  Wetlands 38:1-13.

Ensign, S., and G.B. Noe.  2018.  Tidal extension and sea level rise: recommendations for a research agenda.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16: 37-43.

Jones, M.C., C. Bernhardt, K.W. Krauss, and G.B. Noe.  2017.  The impact of late Holocene land-use change, climate variability, and sea-level rise on carbon storage in tidal freshwater wetlands on the southeastern United States Coastal Plain.  JGR-Biogeosciences 122: 3126–3141.

McMillan, S.K., and G.B. Noe.  2017.  Increasing floodplain connectivity through urban stream restoration increases nutrient and sediment retention.  Ecological Engineering 108: 284-294.

Hopkins, K., J.V. Loperfido, L.S. Craig, G. Noe, and D. Hogan.  2017.  Comparison of sediment and nutrient export and runoff characteristics from watersheds with centralized versus distributed stormwater management.  Journal of Environmental Management 203: 286-298.

Pierfelice, K.N., B.G. Lockaby, K.W. Krauss, W.H. Conner, G.B. Noe, and M.C. Ricker. 2017. Salinity influences on aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in tidal wetlands.Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 22: D5015002. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001223 [Download File]

Means, M.M., C. Ahn, and G.B. Noe.  2017.  Planting richnessaffects the recovery of vegetation and soil processes in created wetlands following disturbance.  Science of the Total Environment 579: 1366-1378.

Gellis, A.C., M.K. Myers, G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, E.R. Schenk, and L. Myers.  2017.  Storms, channel changes, and a sediment budget for an urban-suburban stream, Difficult Run, Virginia, USA.  Geomorphology 278: 128–148.

Korol, A.R, C. Ahn, and G.B. Noe. 2016.  Richness, biomass, and nutrient content of wetland macrophyte community affect soil nitrogen cycling in a diversity-ecosystem functioning experiment.  Ecological Engineering 95: 252-265.  DOI 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.057. 

Noe, G.B., C.R. Hupp, C.E. Bernhardt, and K.W. Krauss. 2016. Contemporary and long-term nutrient and sediment trapping by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise.Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-016-0066-4. [Download File]

Ensign, S.H., G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, and K.J. Skalak. 2015. Head-of-tide bottleneck of particulate material transport from watersheds to estuaries. Geophysical Research Letters 42: 10,671–10,679. 10.1002/2015GL066830 [Download File]

Batson, J., G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, K.W. Krauss, N.B. Rybicki, and E.R. Schenk. 2015. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short hydroperiod floodplain wetland. JGR Biogeosciences 120: 77-95. DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002817. [Download File]

Kroes, D., E.R. Schenk, G.B. Noe, and A.J. Benthem. 2015. Sediment and nutrient trapping as a result of a Mississippi River diversion: the Morganza Spillway during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood. Ecological Engineering 82: 91-102. [Download File]

Rybicki, N.R., G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, and M.E. Robinson. 2015. Vegetation composition, nutrient, and sediment dynamics along a floodplain landscape. River Systems 21: 109-123. [Download File]

Ensign, S.H., G.B. Noe, and C.R. Hupp. 2014. Linking channel hydrology with riparian wetland accretion in tidal rivers. JGR Earth Surface 119: 28–44. [Download File]

Pizzuto, J., E.R.Schenk, C.R. Hupp, A. Gellis, G. Noe, E. Williamson, D. Karwan, M. O’Neal, J. Marquardt, R. Aalto, D. Newbold. 2014. Characteristic length scales and time-averaged transport velocities of suspended sediment in the Mid-Atlantic Region, U.S.A. Water Resources Research 50: 790–805. [Download File]

Ensign, S.H., C.R. Hupp, G.B. Noe, K.W. Krauss, and C.L. Stagg. 2014. Sediment accretion in tidal freshwater forests and oligohaline marshes of the Waccamaw and Savannah Rivers, U.S.A.Estuaries and Coasts 37: 1107-1119. [Download File]

Loperfido, J.V., G.B. Noe, S.T. Jarnagin, and D.M. Hogan. 2014. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale. Journal of Hydrology 519: 2584-2595. [Download File]

Gellis, A.C., G.B. Noe, J.B. Clune, M.K Myers, C.R. Hupp, E. Schenk, J. Blomquist, and G. Schwarz. 2014. Sources of fine-grained sediment in the Linganore Creek watershed, Frederick and Carroll Counties, Maryland, 2008–10. USGS SIR 2014-5147[Download File]

Noe, G.B., C.R. Hupp, and N.R. Rybicki. 2013. Hydrogeomorphology influences soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in floodplain wetlands. Ecosystems 16: 75–94. [Download File]

Schenk, E.R., C.R. Hupp, A. Gellis, and G.B. Noe. 2013. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38: 771-784, DOI: 10.1002/esp.3314.[Download File]

Hupp, C.R., G.B. Noe, E.R. Schenk, and A.J. Benthem. 2013. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream. Geomorphology 180–181: 156–169. [Download File]

Kröger, R., E.J. Dunne, J. Novak, K.W. King, E. McLellan, D.R. Smith, J. Strock, K. Boomer, M. Tomer, and G.B. Noe. 2013. Downstream approaches to P management in agricultural landscapes: regional applicability and use. Science of the Total Environment 442: 263–274.[Download File]

Hoos, A.B., R.B. Moore, A.M. Garcia, G.B. Noe, S.E. Terziotti, C.M. Johnston, and R.L. Dennis. 2013. Simulating stream transport of nutrients in the eastern United States, 2002, using a spatially-referenced regression model and 1:100,000-scale hydrography. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5102, 33 p., [Download File]

Noe, G.B. 2013. Interactions among hydrogeomorphology, vegetation, and nutrient biogeochemistry in floodplain ecosystems. In: Shroder, J. (Editor in Chief), Butler, D.R., Hupp, C.R. (Eds.), Treatise on Geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, vol. 12, Ecogeomorphology, pp. 307–321. [Download File]

Wolf, K.L., G.B. Noe, and C. Ahn. 2013. Hydrologic connectivity to streams increases nitrogen and phosphorus inputs and cycling in soils of created and natural floodplain wetlands. Journal of Environmental Quality 42: 1245–1255, doi:10.2134/jeq2012.0466. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., C.R. Hupp, E.R. Schenk, and N.R. Rybicki. 2013. Science Summary—Sediment and Nutrient Trapping in the Flood Plain of Difficult Run, Virginia, and Implications for the Restoration of Chesapeake Bay. U.S. Geological Survey. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., K. Krauss, G. Lockaby, W. Conner, and C. Hupp. 2013. The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. Biogeochemistry 114: 225-244, DOI 10.1007/s10533-012-9805-1. [Download File]

Gellis, A.C., and G.B. Noe. 2013. Sediment-source analysis in the Linganore Creek Watershed, Maryland, USA, using the sediment-fingerprinting approach: 2008 to 2010. Journal of Soils and Sediment Volume 13: 1735-1753. [Download File]

Ensign, S.H., G.B. Noe, C.R. Hupp, and S. Fagherazzi. 2012. A meeting of the waters: Interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities in tidal rivers. EOS 93: 455-456. [Download File]

Noe, G.B. 2011. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75: 760-770. [Download File]

Harvey, J.W., G.B. Noe, and L.G. Larsen, D.J. Nowacki, and L.E. McPhillips. 2011. Field flume reveals aquatic vegetation’s role in sediment and particulate phosphorus transport in a shallow aquatic ecosystem. Geomorphology 126: 297-313. [Download File]

Larsen, L.G., N. Aumen, C. Bernhardt, V. Engel, T. Givnish, S. Hagerthey, J. Harvey, L. Leonard, P. McCormick, C. McVoy, G. Noe, M. Nungesser, K. Rutchey, F. Sklar, T. Troxler, J. Volin, and D. Willard. 2011. Recent and historic drivers of landscape change in the Everglades ridge, slough, and tree island mosaic. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology 41: 344-381.[Download File]

Rivera-Monroy, V.H., R.R. Twilley, S.E. Davis III, D.L. Childers, M. Simard, R. Chambers, R. Jaffe, J.N. Boyer, D. Rudnick, K. Zhang, E. Castañeda-Moya, S. Ewe, C. Coronado-Molina, M. Ross, T.J Smith III, B. Michot, E. Meselhe, W. Nuttle, T. Troxler, and G.B. Noe. 2011. The role of the Everglades mangrove ecotone region (EMER) in regulating nutrient cycling and wetland productivity in South Florida. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology 41: 633-669. [Download File]

Wolf, K.L., C. Ahn, and G.B. Noe. 2011. Microtopography enhances nitrogen cycling and removal in created wetlands. Ecological Engineering 37: 1398-1406. [Download File]

Wolf, K.L., C. Ahn, and G.B. Noe. 2011. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands. Wetlands 31: 699-712. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., J. Harvey, R. Schaffranek, and L. Larsen. 2010. Controls of suspended sediment concentration, nutrient content, and transport in a subtropical wetland. Wetlands 30: 39-54.[Download File]

Atkinson, R.B., J.E. Perry, G.B. Noe, W.L. Daniels, and J. Cairns Jr. 2010. Primary productivity in 20-year old created wetlands in southwestern Virginia. Wetlands 30: 200-210. [Download File]

Larsen, L.G., G.R. Aiken, J.W. Harvey, G.B. Noe, and J.P. Crimaldi. 2010. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to trace seasonal DOM dynamics, disturbance effects, and hydrologic transport in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 115, G03001. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and C.R. Hupp. 2009. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains. Ecosystems 12: 728-746. [Download File]

Larsen, L.G., J.W. Harvey, J.P. Crimaldi, and G.B. Noe. 2009. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: insights from the field, laboratory, and numerical modeling. Water Resources Research 45, W01411, doi:10.1029/2008WR007221. [Download File]

Harvey, J.W., R.W. Schaffranek, G.B. Noe, L.G. Larsen, D. Nowacki, and B.L. O’Connor. 2009. Hydroecological factors governing surface-water flow on a low gradient floodplain. Water Resources Research 45, W03421, doi:10.1029/2008WR007129. [Download File]

Hupp, C.R., A. Pierce, and G. Noe. 2009. Floodplain geomorphic processes and ecological impacts of human alteration along coastal plain rivers, USA. Wetlands 29: 413-429. [Download File]

Moser, K., C. Ahn, and G. Noe. 2009. The influence of microtopography on soil nutrients in created mitigation wetlands. Restoration Ecology 17: 641–651. [Download File]

Huang, Y.H., Saiers, J.E., Harvey, J.W., G.B. Noe, and S. Mylon. 2008. Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades. Water Resources Research 44, W04408. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., M. Fellows, and J. Cornell. 2007. Volunteer monitoring demonstrates tree plantings help stream ecosystems. Conservation Currents (Northern Virginia Soil & Water Conservation District) 34:4-5. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and D.L. Childers. 2007. Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: The effects of hydrology and nutrient enrichment. Wetlands Ecology and Management 15: 189-205.[Download File]

Noe, G.B., J. Harvey, and J. Saiers. 2007. Characterization of suspended particles in Everglades wetlands. Limnology & Oceanography 52: 1166-1178. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and C.R. Hupp. 2007. Seasonal variation in nutrient retention during inundation of a short-hydroperiod floodplain. River Research and Applications 23: 1088-1101. [Download File]

Kroes, D.E, C.R. Hupp, and G.B. Noe. 2007. Sediment, nutrient, and vegetation trends along the tidal, forested Pocomoke River, Maryland. Chapter 5, pp. 113-137, in Conner, W.H., T.W. Doyle, and K.W. Krauss (eds.), Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands of the Southeastern United States. Springer. [Download File]

Moser, K., C. Ahn, and G. Noe. 2007. Characterization of microtopography and its influence on vegetation patterns in created wetlands. Wetlands 27: 1081-1097. [Download File]

Davis, S.E. III, D.L. Childers, and G.B. Noe. 2006. The contribution of leaching to the rapid release of nutrients and carbon in the early decay of oligotrophic wetland vegetation.Hydrobiologia 569: 87-97. [Download File]

Hupp, C.R., and G.B. Noe. 2006. Sediment and nutrient accumulation within lowland bottomland ecosystems: an example from the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Pp. 175-187. Hydrology and Management of Forested Wetlands. Proceedings of the International Conference. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and C. Hupp. 2005. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in floodplains of Atlantic Coastal Plain rivers, USA. Ecological Applications 15: 1178-1190. [Download File]

Gaiser E.E., J.C. Trexler, J.H. Richards, D.L. Childers, D. Lee, A.L. Edwards, L.J. Scinto, K. Jayachandran, G.B. Noe, R.D. Jones. 2005. Cascading ecological effects of low-level phosphorus enrichment in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Environmental Quality 34: 717-723. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., L.J. Scinto, J. Taylor, D.L. Childers, and R.D. Jones. 2003. Phosphorus cycling and partitioning in oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystems: A radioisotope tracing study.Freshwater Biology 48: 1993-2008. [Download File]

Childers, D.L., R.F. Doren, R.D. Jones, G.B. Noe, M. Rugge, and L. Scinto. 2003. Decadal change in vegetation and soil phosphorus patterns across the Everglades landscape. Journal of Environmental Quality 32: 344-362. [Download File]

Noe, G.B. 2002. Temporal variability matters: Effects of constant vs. varying moisture and salinity on germination. Ecological Monographs 72: 427-443. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., D.L. Childers, A.L. Edwards, E. Gaiser, K. Jayachandaran, D. Lee, J. Meeder, J. Richards, L.J. Scinto, J. Trexler, and R.D. Jones. 2002. Short-term changes in phosphorus storage in an oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystem receiving experimental nutrient enrichment.Biogeochemistry 59:239-267. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., D.L. Childers, and R.D. Jones. 2001. Phosphorus biogeochemistry and the impacts of phosphorus enrichment: Why is the Everglades so unique? Ecosystems 4: 603-624. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and J.B. Zedler. 2001. Southern California’s variable precipitation defines germination opportunities in upper intertidal marshes. Estuaries 24: 30-40. [Download File]

Noe, G.B., and J.B. Zedler. 2001. Spatiotemporal variation of salt marsh seedling establishment in relation to the abiotic and biotic environment. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 61-74.[Download File]

Sullivan, G., and G.B. Noe. 2000. Coastal wetland plant species of southern California. In:Handbook for Restoring Coastal Wetlands. J.B. Zedler, ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Noe, G.B., and J.B. Zedler. 2000. Differential effects of four abiotic factors on the germination of salt marsh annuals. American Journal of Botany 87: 1679-1692. [Download File]