Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Browse more than 160,000 publications authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS.  Publications available are: USGS-authored journal articles, series reports, book chapters, other government publications, and more.

Filter Total Items: 171115

Machine learning predictions of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking supply in the conterminous United States

Groundwater is an important source of drinking water supplies in the conterminous United State (CONUS), and presence of high nitrate concentrations may limit usability of groundwater in some areas because of the potential negative health effects. Prediction of locations of high nitrate groundwater is needed to focus mitigation and relief efforts. A three-dimensional extreme gradient boosting (XGB)
Katherine Marie Ransom, Bernard T. Nolan, Paul Stackelberg, Kenneth Belitz, Miranda S. Fram

Evolution in eruptive style of the 2018 eruption of Veniaminof volcano, Alaska, reflected in groundmass textures and remote sensing

Variable eruptive style and explosivity is common in basaltic to basaltic andesite volcanoes but can have uncertain origins. Veniaminof volcano in the Alaska-Aleutian arc is a frequently active open-vent center, regularly producing Strombolian eruptions and small lava flows from an intracaldera cone within an intracaldera ice cap. The September–December 2018 eruption of Veniaminof evolved in explo
Matthew W. Loewen, Hannah R. Dietterich, Nathan Graham, Pavel Izbekof

Modes of climate variability bridge proximate and evolutionary mechanisms of masting

There is evidence that variable and synchronous reproduction in seed plants (masting) correlates to modes of climate variability, e.g. El Niño Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. In this perspective, we explore the breadth of knowledge on how climate modes control reproduction in major masting species throughout Earth's biomes. We posit that intrinsic properties of climate modes (
Davide Ascoli, Andrew Hacket-Pain, Ian Pearse, Giorgio Vacchiano, Susanna Corti, Paolo Davini

Understanding mast seeding for conservation and land management

Masting, the intermittent and synchronous production of large seed crops, can have profound consequences for plant populations and the food webs that are built on their seeds. For centuries, people have recorded mast crops because of their importance in managing wildlife populations. In the past 30 years, we have begun to recognize the importance of masting in conserving and managing many other as
Ian Pearse, Andreas Wion, Angela Gonzalez, Mario B. Pesendorfer

Effects of hydrologic variability and remedial actions on first flush and metal loading from streams draining the Silverton caldera, 1992–2014

This study examined water quality in the upper Animas River watershed, a mined watershed that gained notoriety following the 2015 Gold King mine release of acid mine drainage to downstream communities. Water-quality data were used to evaluate trends in metal concentrations and loads over a two-decade period. Selected sites included three sites on tributary streams and one main-stem site on the Ani
Tanya N Petach, Robert L. Runkel, Rory M. Cowie, Diane M. McKnight

Similarities and differences between two deadly Caribbean coral diseases: White plague and stony coral tissue loss disease

For several decades, white plagues (WPDs: WPD-I, II and III) and more recently, stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) have significantly impacted Caribbean corals. These diseases are often difficult to separate in the field as they produce similar gross signs. Here we aimed to compare what we know about WPD and SCTLD in terms of: (1) pathology, (2) etiology, and (3) epizootiology. We reviewed ov
Aldo Cróquer, Ernesto Weil, Caroline Rogers

Limited co-existence of native unionids and invasive dreissenid mussels more than 30 Y post dreissenid invasion in a large river system

There are serious concerns for native freshwater mussel survival (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes region after populations were seemingly pushed to the brink of extirpation following the introduction of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis bugensis) in the mid-1980s. The Detroit River was the first major river system in North America to be invaded by drei
S. Keretz, D. Woolnough, Edward F. Roseman, T.J. Morris, A. Elgin, D.T. Zanatta

A new approach for representing agent-environment feedbacks: Coupled agent-based and state-and-transition simulation models

ContextAgent-based models (ABMs) and state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) have proven useful for understanding processes underlying social-ecological systems and evaluating practical questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. ABMs can simulate a variety of agents (autonomous units, such as wildlife or people); agent characteristics, decision-making, adaptive behavi
Brian W. Miller, Leonardo Frid

Can the impact of canopy trees on soil and understory be altered using litter additions?

Trees can have large effects on soil nutrients in ways that alter succession, particularly in the case of nitrogen-(N)-fixing trees. In Hawaiʻi, forest restoration relies heavily on use of a native N-fixing tree, Acacia koa (koa), but this species increases soil-available N and likely facilitates competitive dominance of exotic pasture grasses. In contrast, Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a), the do
Stephanie G. Yelenik, Evan M Rehm, Carla M. D'Antonio

Active neutron interrogation experiments and simulation verification using the SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma-Ray spectrometer (SINGR) for geosciences

We present a new SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma Ray spectrometer (SINGR) instrument for use with both passive and active measurement techniques. Here we discuss the application of SINGR for planetary exploration missions, however, hydrology, nuclear non-proliferation, and resource prospecting are all potential areas where the instrument could be applied. SINGR uses an elpasolite scintillato
Lena E. Heffern, Craig J. Hardgrove, Ann Parsons, E. B. Johnson, R. Starr, G. Stoddard, R. E. Blakeley, T. Prettyman, Travis S. J. Gabriel, H. Barnaby, J. Christian, M.A. Unzueta, C. Tate, A. Martin, J. Moersch

Central-West Siberian-breeding Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) segregate in two morphologically distinct flyway populations

Long-distance migratory species often include multiple breeding populations, with distinct migration routes, wintering areas and annual-cycle timing. Detailed knowledge on population structure and migratory connectivity provides the basis for studies on the evolution of migration strategies and for species conservation. Currently, five subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica have been de
Roeland A. Bom, Jesse R. Conklin, Yvonne I. Verkuil, José A. Alves, Jimmy De Fouw, Anne Dekinga, Chris J. Hassell, Raymond H. G. Klaassen, Eldar Rakhimberdiev, Andy Y. Kwarteng, Afonso Rocha, Job ten Horn, T. Lee Tibbitts, Pavel S. Tomkovich, Reginald Victor, Theunis Piersma

Influence of permafrost type and site history on losses of permafrost carbon after thaw

We quantified permafrost peat plateau and post-thaw carbon (C) stocks across a chronosequence in Interior Alaska to evaluate the amount of C lost with thaw. Macrofossil reconstructions revealed three stratigraphic layers of peat: (1) a base layer of fen/marsh peat, (2) peat from a forested peat plateau (with permafrost) and, (3) collapse-scar bog peat (at sites where permafrost thaw has occurred).
Kristen L. Manies, Miriam C. Jones, Mark Waldrop, Mary-Catherine Leewis, Christopher C. Fuller, Robert S. Cornman, Kristen Hoefke