Science and Products
The impacts of climate change and sea-level rise around the Pacific and Arctic Oceans can vary tremendously. Thus far the vast majority of national and international impact assessments and models of coastal climate change have focused on low-relief coastlines that are not near seismically active zones. Furthermore, the degree to which extreme waves and wind will add further stress to coastal...
The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else in the nation. Understanding the rates and causes of coastal change in Alaska is needed to identify and mitigate hazards that might affect people and animals that call Alaska home.
A decade of remotely sensed observations highlight complex processes linked to coastal permafrost bluff erosion in the Arctic
Eroding permafrost coasts are indicators and integrators of changes in the Arctic System as they are susceptible to the combined effects of declining sea ice extent, increases in open water duration, more frequent and impactful storms, sea-level rise, and warming permafrost. However, few observation sites in the Arctic have yet to link decadal-...Jones, Benjamin M.; Farquharson, Louise M.; Baughman, Carson; Buzard, Richard M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Grosse, Guido; Bull, Diana L.; Günther, Frank; Nitze, Ingmar; Urban, Frank; Kasper, Jeremy L.; Frederick, Jennifer M.; Thomas, Matthew A.; Jones, Craig; Mota, Alejandro; Dallimore, Scott; Tweedie, Craig E.; Maio, Christopher; Mann, Daniel H.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Xiao, Ming; Sachs, Torsten; Iwahana, Go; Kanevskiy, Mikhail Z.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape
Long-term rates of shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to the Icy Cape region of northern Alaska, have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Short-term shoreline change rates are reported for the first time. Additional shoreline position data...Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.
National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Southeast Atlantic coast
Sandy ocean beaches in the United States are popular tourist and recreational destinations and constitute some of the most valuable real estate in the country.The boundary between land and water along the coastline is often the location of concentrated residential and commercial development and is frequently exposed to a range of natural hazards,...Kratzmann, Meredith; Himmelstoss, Emily; Thieler, E. Robert
Rigorously valuing the role of coral reefs in coastal protection: An example from Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A.
The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by exposing communities to flooding hazards. The protective services of these natural defenses are not assessed in the same rigorous, economic terms as artificial defenses such as seawalls, and therefore often not considered in decision-making. Here we present a new...Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reguero, Borja; Lowe, Erik N.; Shope, James B.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Beck, Mike; Nickel, Barry
End of the chain? Rugosity and fine-scale bathymetry from existing underwater digital imagery using structure-from-motion (SfM) technology
The rugosity or complexity of the seafloor has been shown to be an important ecological parameter for fish, algae, and corals. Historically, rugosity has been measured either using simple and subjective manual methods such as ‘chain-and-tape’ or complicated and expensive geophysical methods. Here, we demonstrate the application of...Storlazzi, Curt D.; Dartnell, Peter; Hatcher, Gerry; Gibbs, Ann E.
Seasonal electrical resistivity surveys of a coastal bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska
Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1–2 m...Swarzenski, Peter W.; Johnson, Cordell; Lorenson, Thomas; Conaway, Christopher H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li; Richmond, Bruce M.; Waldrop, Mark P.
National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape
The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native communities, and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic, widespread, and may be accelerating, which threatens defense- and energy-related...Gibbs, Ann E.; Karen A. Ohman; Richmond, Bruce M.
National assessment of shoreline change: historical change along the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape
Beach erosion is a persistent problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. Along the Arctic coast of Alaska, coastal erosion is widespread, may be accelerating, and is threatening defense and energy-related infrastructure, coastal habitats, and Native communities. As coastal populations continue to expand and infrastructure and...Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.
Evaluation of vector coastline features extracted from 'structure from motion'-derived elevation data
For extensive and remote coastlines, the absence of high-quality elevation models—for example, those produced with lidar—leaves some coastal populations lacking one of the essential elements for mapping shoreline positions or flood extents. Here, we compare seven different elevation products in a lowlying area in western Alaska to establish their...Kinsman, Nicole; Gibbs, Ann E.; Nolan, Matt
Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i
Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S...Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.
Seafloor video footage and still-frame grabs from U.S. Geological Survey cruises in Hawaiian nearshore waters
Underwater video footage was collected in nearshore waters (<60-meter depth) off the Hawaiian Islands from 2002 to 2011 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project, to improve seafloor characterization and for the development and ground-truthing of benthic-habitat maps. This...Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Tierney, Peter W.
Quantifying landscape change in an arctic coastal lowland using repeat airborne LiDAR
Increases in air, permafrost, and sea surface temperature, loss of sea ice, the potential for increased wave energy, and higher river discharge may all be interacting to escalate erosion of arctic coastal lowland landscapes. Here we use airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data acquired in 2006 and 2010 to detect landscape change in a 100...Jones, Benjamin M.; Stoker, Jason M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Grosse, Guido; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Douglas, Thomas A.; Kinsman, Nichole E.M.; Richmond, Bruce M.