Charles N Alpers

Biography

Since 1991, as a Research Chemist with USGS, Dr. Alpers has led numerous water-quality investigations involving the environmental effects of historical mining. This work has included research on acid mine drainage at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, including documentation of negative-pH water and associated sulfate minerals. Since 1999, he has been lead scientist for several multi-disciplinary studies regarding mercury contamination, transport, and bioaccumulation associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges of California. He is also investigating arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility in gold-mine waste at the Empire Mine in Grass Valley, California as part of a multi-disciplinary team involving USGS and non-USGS scientists. 

The overarching theme of Dr. Alpers' research is the environmental geochemistry of metal contamination from historical mining.  A secondary theme is the use of mineral deposits and areas contaminated by mining as laboratories for process-oriented research. His career has evolved from an emphasis on acid mine drainage (late 1980s to 2000) to an emphasis on mercury (since 2000) with growing interests in wetlands and arsenic.

 

Active projects:

Cache Creek Settling Basin Mercury Project

Since 2009, Dr. Alpers has been Project Chief of the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) Mercury Project. The project's objectives are: (1) to measure mercury and methylmercury concentrations and compute loads for the inflow and outflows from CCSB, an area designed to trap sediment and keep it from entering the Yolo Bypass, and (2) to assess spatial and temporal trends in methylmercury formation and bioaccumulation within the CCSB as a function of land use and habitat. Sediment transported by Cache Creek is relatively high in mercury because of historical mercury mining and active hot and cold springs in the upper Cache Creek watershed. The project is funded by the California Department of Water Resources and the USGS Cooperative Water Program.

Malakoff Diggins Erosion Rates and Sediment Sources

In cooperation with tne Nevada Irrigaion District, the California Department of Water Resources, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation, Dr. Alpers is Project Chief of an effort designed to quanitfy erosion rates from the inactive hydraulic mining pit within Malakoff Diggins State Historic Park.  The research team is using sediment "fingerprinting" techniques (mineralogy and geochemsitry) to investigate sources of fine-grained sediment that exit the pit through the Hiller Tunnel, causing impairment of downstream water bodies including Humbug Creek. Terrestrial lidar and intepretation of historical photographs are being used to quantify erosion rates.

Iron Mountain Mine: Geochemical Investigations

Iron Mountain Mine is the largest mining-related Superfund (CERCLA) site in California. Dr. Alpers is the Project Chief of a USGS team that provides technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Since 2012, the USGS has investigated the mineralogy and biogeochemistry of iron-rich scale that forms in a pipe conveying acidic water to a lime-neutralization water treatment plant. Starting in 2016, the USGS is investigating copper transport and attenuation in lower Spring Creek, downstream of inputs from Iron Mountain and the treatment plant. Investigations are also continuing on sulfate minerals from the underground mine workings. Dr. Alpers is also collaborating with scientists from the University of California, Davis, who are investigating iron mineralogy and geochemistry at Iron Mountain as a Mars analogue, with funding from NASA.

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PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS, THESES, AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

124. Williams, A.J., Alpers, C.N., Sumner, D.Y., and Campbell, K.M., 2016, Filamentous hydrous ferric oxide biosignatures in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California: Geomicrobiology Journal, p. 1-14. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01490451.2016.1155679  doi:10.1080/01490451.2016.1155679

123.  Obrist, D., Pearson, C., Webster, J., Kane, T., Lin, C.-J., Aiken, G.R., and Alpers, C.N., 2016, Terrestrial mercury in the western United States: spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity: Science of the Total Environment, v. 568, p. 522-535. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715310858 doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.104

122. Jacobs, J.A., Testa, S.M., Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2016, An overview of environmental impacts and reclamation efforts at the Iron Mountain Mine, Shasta County, California, In: Anderson, R. and Ferriz, H. (eds.), Applied Geology in California. Association of Environmental & Engineeringl Geologists, Special Publication No. 26, Ch. 23, p. 427-446

121. Howle, J.F., Alpers, C.N., Bawden, G.W. and Bond, S., 2016, Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using time-series terrestrial laser scanning in Deer Creek, Nevada County, California 2010–13. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5179, 23 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155179

120. Fleck, J.A., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Eagles-Smith, C., Ackerman, J., Lutz, M., Tate, M., Alpers, C.N., Hall, B.D., Krabbenhoft, D., and Eckley, C., 2016, Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America: Science of the Total Environment, v. 568, p. 727-738. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716304703

119. Eagles-Smith, C.A., Wiener, J.G., Eckley, C.S., Willacker, J.J., Evers, D.C., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.,  Obrist, D., Fleck, J.A., Aiken, G.R., Lepak, J.M., Jackson, A.K., Webster, J., Stewart, A.R., Davis, J.A., Alpers, C.N., and Ackerman, J.T., 2016, Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife: Science of the Total Environment, v. 568, p. 1213-1226. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716310245  doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.094

118. Drexler, J.Z., Alpers, C.N., Neymark, L.A., Paces, J.B., Taylor, H.E., and Fuller, C.C., 2016, A millennial-scale record of Hg and Pb contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California: Science of the Total Environment, v. 551-552, p. 738-751. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716301978 doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.201

117. Domagalski, J.D., Majewski, M.S., Alpers, C.N., Eckley, C.S., Eagles-Smith, C.A., Schenk, L., and Wherry, S., 2016, Comparison of mercury mass loading in streams to atmospheric deposition in watersheds in the western U.S.: Evidence for non-atmospheric mercury sources: Science of the Total Environment, v. 568, p. 638-650. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716303229 doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.112

116. Alpers, C.N., Yee, J.L., Ackerman, J.A., Orlando, J.L., Slotton, D.G., and Marvin-DiPasquale, M., 2016, Prediction of fish tissue mercury using geospatial data including historical mining: Science of the Total Environment, v. 571, p. 364-379. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896971631018X   doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.088

115. Williams, A.J., Sumner, D.Y., Alpers, C.N., Karunatillake, S, and Hofmann, B.A., 2015, Preserved filamentous microbial biosignatures in the Brick Flat gossan, Iron Mountain, California. Astrobiology, v. 15(8): 637–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1235 

114. Plumlee, G.S. Alpers, C.N., Morman, S.A., and San Juan, C., 2015, Potential environmental and environmental-health implications of the ARkStorm scenario: Natural Hazards Review, 04015015-1 to -11. (published July 22, 2015) (10% of manuscript preparation and 30% of editing) (IP-045785, USGS-approved Feb. 19, 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000188

113. Campbell, K.M., Verplanck, P., McCleskey, R.B., and Alpers, C.N., 2015, From extreme pH to extreme temperature: An issue in honor of the geochemical contributions of Kirk Nordstrom, USGS hydrogeochemist. Prologue to special issue of Applied Geochemistry based on a session at the Fall 2013 GSA Meeting. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.04.012

112. Alpers, C.N., 2015, Arsenic and mercury contamination from historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California: extended abstract, International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, Tucson, AZ, April 20-24, 2015.

111. Windham-Myers, L., Ackerman, J.T.,  Fleck, J.A., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Stricker, C.A., Bachand, P., Eagles-Smith, C.A., Gill, G., Stephenson, M., and Alpers, C.N., 2014, Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of observations from an integrated field study of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation: journal article. Science of the Total Environment, v. 484, p. 221-231. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714000424

110. Russell, C.C., Alpers, C.N., and Spence, S., 2014, Mercury methods, in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C. (eds.), Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle, Appendix 3, Society of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Englewood, Colorado. http://smemi.personifycloud.com/PersonifyEbusiness/Default.aspx?TabID=251&productId=116962

109. Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Windham-Myers, L., Agee, J.L., Kakouros, E., Kieu, L.H., Alpers, C.N., and Stricker, C.A., 2014, Methylmercury production in sediment from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass, California. USA:  Science of the Total Environment, v. 484, p. 288-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.098

108. Fleck, J.A., Gill, G., Downing, B.D., Bergamaschi, B.A., and Alpers, C.N., 2014, Concurrent photolytic degradation of dissolved aqueous methylmercury and dissolved organic matter: Science of the Total Environment, v. 484, p. 263-275. (available online April 30, 2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.107

107. Drexler, J., Paces, J., Alpers, C.N., Windham-Myers, L., Neymark, L., Bullen, T., and Taylor, H.E., 234U/238U and 87Sr/86Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California: Applied Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 164-179. (available online Nov. 1, 2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.10.011

106. Bowell, R., Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., Jamieson, H.E., and Majzlan, J., 2014, The Environmental Geochemistry of Arsenic – An Overview, In: Bowell, R., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Majzlan, J. (eds.), Arsenic -- Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry v. 79, p 1-16.

105. Bowell, R., Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., Jamieson, H.E., and Majzlan, J., 2014, Preface, In: Bowell, R., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Majzlan, J. (eds), Arsenic -- Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry v. 79. DOI: 10.2138/rmg.2014.79.0

104. Bachand, P.A.M., Bachand, S., Fleck, J.A., Alpers, C.N., Stephenson, N., and Windham-Myers, L., 2014, Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: The need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone: Science of the Total Environment, v. 472, p. 957-970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.086

103. Alpers, C.N., Myers, P., Millsap, D., and Regnier, T.B., 2014, Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada:  Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California. In: Bowell, R., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Majzlan, J. (eds), Arsenic – Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry v. 79, p. 553-587.

102. Alpers, C.N., Fleck, J.A., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Stricker, C.A., Stephenson, M., and Taylor, H.E., 2014, Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands, Yolo Bypass, California: Spatial and seasonal variations in water quality: Science of the Total Environment, v. 484, p. 276-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.096

101. Sobron, P., and Alpers, C.N., 2013, Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California: Astrobiology, v. 13 (3), p. 270–278. http://ca.water.usgs.gov/projects/iron_mountain/Sobron+Alpers_Raman_IronMtn_Astrobiology_2013.pdf 

100. Campbell, K.M., Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Blum, A., 2013, Characterization and remediation of iron(III) oxide-rich scale in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California, U.S.A. In: Brown, A.; Figueroa, L. & Wolkersdorfer, Ch.: Reliable Mine Water Technology (v. I) p. 287–294; Denver, Colorado, USA (Publication Printers). http://ca.water.usgs.gov/projects/iron_mountain/Characterization_Remediation_%20Iron_Oxide_Iron_Mountain.pdf 

99. Taylor H.E., Antweiler, R.C., Roth, D.A., Alpers, C.N., and Dileanis, P., 2012, Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: Occurrence and distribution: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-011-9738-z

98. Antweiler, R., Taylor, H.E., and Alpers, C.N., 2012, Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the Sacramento River near Keswick Reservoir: Chemical Geology, v. 298–299, p. 70–78.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.025

97. Porter, Keith, Wein, Anne, Alpers, Charles, Baez, Allan, Barnard, Patrick, Carter, James, Corsi, Alessandra, Costner, James, Cox, Dale, Das, Tapash, Dettinger, Michael, Done, James, Eadie, Charles, Eymann, Marcia, Ferris, Justin, Gunturi, Prasad, Hughes, Mimi, Jarrett, Robert, Johnson, Laurie, Dam Le-Griffin, Hanh, Mitchell, David, Morman, Suzette, Neiman, Paul, Olsen, Anna, Perry, Suzanne, Plumlee, Geoffrey, Ralph, Martin, Reynolds, David, Rose, Adam, Schaefer, Kathleen, Serakos, Julie, Siembieda, William, Stock, Jonathon, Strong, David, Sue Wing, Ian, Tang, Alex, Thomas, Pete, Topping, Ken, and Wills, Chris; Jones, Lucile, Chief Scientist, Cox, Dale, Project Manager, 2011, Overview of the ARkStorm scenario: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1312, 183 p. and appendixes. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1312/

96. Plumlee, G., Alpers, C., and Morman, S., 2011, Environmental and health issues, in Porter, K., and others, Overview of the ARkStorm Scenario: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2010–1312, p. 148-150. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1312/

95. Majzlan, J., Alpers, C.N., Bender Koch, C., McCleskey, R.B., Myneni, S.C.B., and Neil, J.M., 2011, Vibrational, X-ray and Mössbauer absorption spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California: Chemical Geology, v. 284, p. 296–305.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.03.008

94. Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Agee, J.L., Kakouros, E., Kieu, L.H., Fleck, J.A., and Alpers, C.N., 2011, The effects of sediment and mercury mobilization in the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek confluence area, Nevada County, California: Concentrations, speciation and environmental fate—Part 2: Laboratory experiments: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010−1325B, 54 p.  http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1325B 

93. Fleck, J.A., Alpers, C.N., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Hothem, R.L., Wright, S.A., Ellett, K., Beaulieu, E., Agee, J.L., Kakouros, E., Kieu, L.H., Eberl, D.D., Blum, A.E., and May, J.T., 2011, The effects of sediment and mercury mobilization in the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek confluence area, Nevada County, California: Concentrations, speciation, and environmental fate—Part 1: Field characterization: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1325A, 104 p.  http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1325A

92. Windham-Myers L., Marvin-DiPasquale M., Fleck J., Alpers C.N., Ackerman J., Eagles-Smith C., Stricker C., Stephenson M., Feliz D., Gill G., Bachand P., Brice A., and Kulakow R., 2010, Methylmercury cycling, bioaccumulation, and export from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass: U.S. Geological Survey Cooperator Report to California State Water Resources Control Board, Agreement 06-232-555-0, 266 p. http://swrcb2.swrcb.ca.gov/centralvalley/water_issues/tmdl/central_valley_projects/delta_hg/other_technical_reports/

91.  Tangalos, G.E., Beard, B.L., Johnson, C.M., Alpers, C.N., Shelobolina, E.S., Xu, H., Konishi, H., and Roden, E.E., 2010, Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks: Geobiology, v. 8, p. 197–208.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4669.2010.00237.x

90.  Saiki, M.K., Martin, B.A., May, T.W., and Alpers, C.N., 2010, Mercury contamination in fish from a Sierra Nevada foothill reservoir located downstream from historic gold-mining operations.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 163, p. 313–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0836-6

89. Marvin Di-Pasquale, M., Alpers, C.N., and Fleck, J.A., 2009, Mercury, methylmercury, and other constituents in sediment and water from seasonal and permanent wetlands in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and Yolo Bypass, Yolo County, California, 2005−06: U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 2009-1182, 69 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1182/

88.  Stewart, A.R., Saiki, M.K., Kuwabara, J.S., Alpers, C.N., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2008, Influence of plankton mercury dynamics and trophic pathways on mercury concentrations of top predator fish of a mining-impacted reservoir. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 65, p. 2351–2366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/F08-140

87.  Dunlap, C.E., Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., Unruh, D.M., Flegal, A.R., 2008, The persistence of lead from past gasoline emissions and mining drainage in a large riparian system: evidence from lead isotopes in the Sacramento River, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72, p. 5935–5948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.10.006 

86. Caruso, B.S., Cox, T.J., Runkel, R.L., Velleux, M.L., Bencala, K.E., Nordstrom, D.K., Julien, P.Y, Butler, B.A., Alpers, C.N., Marion, A., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Metals fate and transport modeling in streams and watersheds: state of the science and USEPA workshop review. Hydrologic Processes, v. 22, p. 4011–4021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7114

85. Alpers, C.N., Stewart, A.R., Saiki, M.K., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Topping, B.R., Rider, K.M., Gallanthine, S.K., Kester, C.A., Rye, R.O., Antweiler, R.C., and De Wild, J.F., 2008b, Environmental factors affecting mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, 2001–03. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5008, 358 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5008/

84. Alpers, C.N., Eagles-Smith, C., Foe, C., Klasing, S., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Slotton, D.G., and Windham-Myers, L., 2008a, Mercury conceptual model. Sacramento, Calif.: Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan, 62 p. http://www.science.calwater.ca.gov/pdf/drerip/DRERIP_mercury_conceptual_model_final_012408.pdf

83. Church, C.D., Alpers, C.N., Wilkin, R.T., Rye, R.O., and McCleskey, R.B., 2007, Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water. Geochemical Transactions. v. 8, paper 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1467-4866-8-10

82. Snyder, N.P., Wright, S.A., Alpers, C.N., Flint, L.E., Holmes, C.W., and Rubin, D.M., 2006, Reconstructing depositional processes and history from reservoir stratigraphy: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, Earth Surface. v. 111, F04003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JF000451

81. Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., McCleskey, R.B., and Alpers, C.N., 2006, Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe3(SO4)2(H2O)5, European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 18, p. 175–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0935-1221/2006/0018-0175

80. Curtis, J.A., Flint, L.E., Alpers, C.N., Wright, S.A., and Snyder N.P., 2006, Use of Sediment Rating Curves and Optical Backscatter Data to Characterize Sediment Transport in the Upper Yuba River Watershed, California, 2001–03, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5246, 74 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5246/ 

79. Bruns, T.R., Alpers, C.N., and Carlson, P., 2006, Distribution, thickness, and volume of fine-grained sediment from precipitation of metals from acid-mine waters in Keswick Reservoir, Shasta County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1377. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1377/

78. Bambic, D.G., Alpers, C.N., Green, P.G., Fanelli, E., and Silk, W.K., 2006, Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site: I. Stream copper and zinc: Environmental Pollution, v. 144, p. 774-782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.02.019

77. Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Antweiler, R.C., Lasorsa, B.K., De Wild, J.F., and Snyder, N.P., 2006, Geochemical data for mercury, methylmercury, and other constituents in sediments from Englebright Lake, California, 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 151, 95 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/151/

76. Seal II, R.R., Jambor, J.L., and Alpers, C.N., 2005b, Preface, Geochemistry of Sulfate Minerals in High- and Low-Temperature Environments: A Tribute to Robert O. Rye, Special issue of Chemical Geology, v. 215, p. 1–4. (25% of manuscript preparation)

75. Seal II, R.R., Jambor, J.L., and Alpers, C.N., (eds.), 2005a, Geochemistry of Sulfate Minerals in High- and Low-Temperature Environments: A Tribute to Robert O. Rye, Special issue of Chemical Geology, v. 215, 536 p. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00092541

74. Saiki, M.K., Martin, B.A., May, T.W., and Alpers, C.N., 2005, Total mercury concentrations in fillets of bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, and other fishes from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California: California Fish and Game, v. 91, no. 3, p. 193–206.

73. Montero-Sanchez, I.C., Brimhall, G.H., Alpers, C.N., and Swayze, G.A., 2005, Characterization of waste rock associated with acid drainage at the Penn Mine, California by ground-based visible to short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy assisted by digital mapping: Chemical Geology. v. 215, p. 453–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.06.045

72. May, J.M., Hothem, R.L., and Alpers, C.N., 2005, Mercury Concentrations in Fishes from Select Water Bodies in Trinity County, California, 2000-2002, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1321, 14 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1321/

71. Jamieson, H.E., Robinson C., Alpers, C.N., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Poustovetov, A., and Lowers, H.A., 2005b, Geochemistry of jarosite-group minerals and associated waters from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 43, no. 4, p. 1225–1242. http://canmin.geoscienceworld.org/content/43/4/1225.full.pdf+html

70. Jamieson, H.E., Robinson C., Alpers, C.N., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Peterson, R.C., 2005a, Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California: Chemical Geology, v. 215,  p. 387–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.10.001

69. Curtis, J.A., Flint, L.E., Alpers, C.N., and Yarnell, S.M., 2005, Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA: Geomorphology, v. 68, p. 149–166.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.11.019

68. Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., May, J.T., Hothem, R.L., Taylor, H.E., Antweiler, R.C., De Wild, J.F., and Lawler, D.A., 2005b, Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999–2001, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5251, 278 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2004/5251/

67. Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., May, J.T., and Hothem, R.L., 2005a, Mercury contamination from historical gold mining in California, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3014, 6 p. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/fs/2005/3014/

66. Snyder, N.P., Rubin, D.M., Alpers, C.N., Childs, J.R., Curtis, J.A., Flint, L.E., and Wright, S.A., 2004c, Estimating accumulation rates and physical properties of sediment behind a dam: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California: Water Resources Research, v. 40, W11301, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004WR003279 http://www2.bc.edu/~snyderno/snyder_etal_2004.pdf 

65. Snyder, N.P., Alpers, C.N., Flint, L.E., Curtis, J.A., Hampton, M.A., Haskell, B.J., and Nielson, D.L., 2004b, Report on the May-June 2002 Englebright Lake deep coring campaign:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1061 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1061/

64. Snyder, N.P., Allen, J.R., Dare, C., Hampton, M.A., Schneider, G., Wooley, R.J., Alpers, C.N., and Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., 2004a, Sediment grain-size and loss-on-ignition analyses from 2002 Englebright Lake coring and sampling campaigns:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1080 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1080/

63. Saiki, M.K., Slotton, D.G., May, T.W., Ayers, S., and Alpers, C.N., 2004, Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000–03 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 103, 21 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/ds103/

62. Hunerlach, M.P., Alpers, C.N., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Taylor, H.E., and De Wild, J.F., 2004, Geochemistry of fluvial sediment impounded behind Daguerre Point Dam, Yuba River, California, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5165, 66 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2004/5165/ 

61. Domagalski, J.L., Alpers, C.N., Slotton, D.G., Suchanek, T.H., Ayers, S.M., 2004, Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek Watershed, California. Science of the Total Environment. v. 327, p. 215–237. http://loer.tamug.tamu.edu/calfed/Report/Publications/Cachestoen.pdf 

60. Kuwabara, J.S., Alpers, C.N., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Topping, B.R., Carter, J.L., Stewart, A.R., Fend, S.V., Parchaso, F., Moon, G.E., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2003, Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4140, 64 p. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri034140/ 

59. Hunerlach, M.P., and Alpers, C.N., 2003, Mercury contamination from hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California, in Gray, J.E., ed., Geologic Studies of Mercury by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1248, 41 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2003/c1248/

58. Domagalski, J.L, Slotton, D.G., Alpers, C.N., Suchanek, T.H., Churchill, R., Bloom, N., Ayers, S.M., and Clinkenbeard, J., 2003b, Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-2001. U.S. Geological Survey Water –Resources Investigations Report 03-4355, 30 p. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri034335/

57. Domagalski, J.L., Alpers, C.N., Slotton, D.G., Suchanek, T.H., Ayers, S.M., 2003a,  Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, January 2000 through May 2001, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-3047, 105 p. http://loer.tamug.tamu.edu/calfed/Report/Final/USGSCacheloadings.pdf 

56. Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Spitzley, J., 2003b, Extreme acid mine drainage from a pyritic massive sulfide deposit: The Iron Mountain end-member.  In: Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., (eds.) Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes. Mineralogical Association of Canada Short-Course v. 31, p. 407–430.

55. Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., Hamlin, S.N., and Zierenberg, R.A., 2003a, Reconnaissance of Acid Drainage Sources and Preliminary Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives at the Copper Bluff Mine, Hoopa Valley Reservation, California.  U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4253, 53 p. http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri024253

54. Seal II, R.R., Hammarstrom, J.M, Foley, N.K., and Alpers, C.N., 2002, Geoenvironmental models for seafloor massive sulfide deposits, in Seal, R.R. II and Hammarstrom, J.M. (eds.) Progress on Geoenvironmental Models for Selected Mineral Deposit Types, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195, Chapter L, p. 196–212.  http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-195/ 

53. Roth, D.A., Taylor, H.E., Domgalaski, J., Dileanis, P., Peart, D.B., Antweiler, R.C., and Alpers, C.N., 2001, Distribution of inorganic mercury in Sacramento River water and suspended colloidal sediment material. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 40, no. 2, p. 161–172.

52. Parsons, M.B., Bird, D.K., Einaudi, M.T., and Alpers, C.N., 2001, Geochemical and mineralogical controls on trace element release from the Penn Mine base-metal slag dump.  Applied Geochemistry, v. 16, p. 1567–1593.

51. Domagalski, J.L., Knifong, D.K., Dileanis, P.D., Brown, L.R., May, J.T., Alpers, C.N., and Connor, V., 2001, Water Quality in the Sacramento River Basin, California, 1995–98. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1215, 36 p.

50. Stoffregen, R.E., Alpers, C.N., and Jambor, J.L., 2000, Alunite-jarosite crystallography, thermodynamics, and geochronology, in Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K. (eds.), Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance.  Mineralogical Society of America and Geochemical Society, Washington, D.C., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 453–479.

49. Seal II, R.R., Alpers, C.N., and Rye, R.O., 2000b, Stable isotope systematics of sulfate minerals, in Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K. (eds.), Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance.  Mineralogical Society of America and Geochemical Society, Washington, D.C., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 541–602.

48. Seal II, R.R., Hammarstrom, J.M., Foley, N.K., and Alpers, C.N., 2000a, Geoenvironmental models for seafloor base- and precious-metal massive sulfide deposits:  Tools for mitigation and remediation, in Proceedings, International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage 2000, May 21–24, 2000, Denver, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colo., p. 151–160.

47. Robbins, E.I., Rodgers, T.M., Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2000, Ecogeochemistry of the subsurface food web at pH 0-2.5 in Iron Mountain, California, USA: Hydrobiologia. v. 433, p. 15–23.

46. Nordstrom, D.K., Alpers, C.N., Ptacek, C.J., and Blowes, D.W., 2000, Negative pH and extremely acidic mine waters from Iron Mountain, California: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 34, no. 2, p. 254–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es990646v

45. May, J.T., Hothem, R.L., Alpers, C.N., and Law, M.A., 2000, Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining: The South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999.  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-367, 30 p. http://ca.water.usgs.gov/archive/reports/ofr00367/index.html

44. Marvin-DiPasquale, M.P., Agee, J., Alpers, C.N., and Hunerlach, M.P., 2000, Microbial mercury cycling in sediments associated with historic mining in California, in Proceedings, Workshop on Assessing and Managing Mercury from Historic and Current Mining Activities, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November, 2000, San Francisco, CA., p. 63–67.

43. Jambor, J.L., Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N., 2000, Metal-sulfate salts from sulfide mineral oxidation, in Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K. (eds.) Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance.  Mineralogical Society of America and Geochemical Society, Washington D.C., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 303–350.

42. Domagalski, J.L., Dileanis, P.D., Knifong, D.L., Munday, C.M., May, J.T., Dawson, B.J., Shelton J.L., and Alpers, C.N., 2000b, Water-Quality Assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California -- Water-Quality, Sediment and Tissue Chemistry, and Biological Data, 1996-1998. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-391. http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sac_nawqa/waterindex.html 

41. Domagalski, J.L., Knifong, D.K., Dileanis, P.D., Brown, L.R., May, J.T., Alpers, C.N., and Connor, V., 2000a, Water Quality in the Sacramento River Basin, California, 1995–98. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1215, 36 p. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/circ1215/ 

40. Cain, D.J., Carter, J.L., Fend, S.V., Luoma, S.N., Alpers, C.N., and Taylor, H.E., 2000, Metal exposure to a benthic macroinvertebrate, Hydropsyche californica, related to mine drainage in the Sacramento River: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 57, no. 2, p. 380–390.

39. Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.L. (eds.), 2000d, Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97.  Volume 1. Methods and data.  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, 428 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wrir_994286/

38. Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K., 2000c, Preface, in Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K. (eds.), Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance.  Mineralogical Society of America and Geochemical Society, Washington D.C., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. iii–iv.

37. Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L, and Nordstrom, D.K. (eds.), 2000b, Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance.  Mineralogical Society of America and The Geochemical Society, Washington, D.C., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, 608 p.

36. Alpers, C.N., Antweiler, R.A., Taylor, H.E., Dileanis, P.D., and Domagalski, J.L., 2000a, Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97. Volume 2. Interpretation of metal loads.  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4002, 106 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wrir00-4002/

35. Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2000, Estimation of pre-mining conditions for trace metal mobility in mineralized areas:  An overview, in Proceedings, International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage 2000, May 21–24, 2000, Denver, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colo., p. 463–472.

34. Alpers, C.N., and Hunerlach, M.P., 2000, Mercury contamination from historic gold mining in California.  U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-061-00, 6 p. http://ca.water.usgs.gov/mercury/fs06100.html

33. Nordstrom, D.K., Alpers, C.N., Coston, J.A., Taylor, H.E., McCleskey, R.B., Ball, J.W., Ogle, S., Cotsifas, J.S., and Davis, J.A., 1999, Geochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters from two reservoirs receiving mine drainage, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T. (eds.), U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 289–296.

32. Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N., 1999b, Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California, in Smith, J.V.,(ed.), Geology, Mineralogy, and Human Welfare, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, v. 96, p. 3455–3462. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/7/3455

31. Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N., 1999a, Geochemistry of Acid Mine Waters, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J. (eds.), The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits.  Part A.  Processes, Methods, and Health Issues,  Society of Economic Geologists, Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6A, chapter 6, p. 133–160.

30. Jamieson, H.E, Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Peterson, R.C., 1999, Substitution of zinc and other metals in iron-sulfate minerals at Iron Mountain, California: in Proceedings, Sudbury ‘99 — Mining and the Environment II, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

29. Hunerlach, M.P., Rytuba, J.J., and Alpers, C.N., 1999a, Mercury contamination from hydraulic placer-gold mining in the Dutch Flat mining district, California, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T. (eds.), U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 179–189.

28. Church, S.E., Alpers, C.N., Vaughn, R.B., Briggs, P.H., and Slotton, D.G., 1999, Use of lead isotopes as natural tracers of metal contamination — A case study of the Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, California, in Plumlee, G.S., and Filipek, L. (eds.),  The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits. Part B. Case Studies, Society of Economic Geologists, Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6B, chapter 30, p. 567–583.

27. Alpers, C.N., Hamlin, S.N., and Hunerlach, M.P., 1999, Hydrogeology and Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage in Ground Water in the Vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, California:  Summary Report, 1993-95.  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4287, 59 p.

26. Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions in mining environments, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J. (eds.), The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits.  Part A.  Processes, Methods, and Health Issues,  Society of Economic Geologists, Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6A, chapter 14, p. 289–323.

25. Rye, R.O., and Alpers, C.N., 1997, The stable isotope geochemistry of jarosite:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-88, 28 p.

24. Hamlin, S.N., and Alpers, C.N., 1996, Hydrogeology and Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage in Ground Water in the Vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California:  Second-Year Summary, 1992-93:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4257, 44 p.

23. Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N., 1995, Remedial investigations, decisions, and geochemical consequences at Iron Mountain Mine, California: Proceedings of Sudbury ‘95 - Mining and the Environment. Hynes, T.P., and Blanchette, M.C. (eds.), May 28 – June 1, 1995, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, CANMET, Ottawa. v. 2, p. 633–642.

22. Hamlin, S.N., and Alpers, C.N., 1995, Hydrogeology and Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage in Ground Water in the Vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California: First-Year Summary: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4040, 45 p.

21. Alpers, C.N., 1995, Responsibilities and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey related to mining and the environment.  In Workshop Report: Mine Waste Technical Forum, Las Vegas, NV, July

20. Alpers, C.N., Blowes, D.W., Nordstrom, D.K., and Jambor, J.L., 1994, Secondary Minerals and Acid Mine-Water Chemistry: In Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Mine-Wastes, Jambor, J.L., and Blowes, D.W. (eds.), Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, v. 22, Waterloo, Ontario, p. 247–270.

19. Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Thompson, J.M., 1993, Seasonal variations in the Zn/Cu ratio of acid mine drainage from Iron Mountain, California:  In Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation, Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W. (eds.) ACS Symposium Series, v. 550, American Chemical Society: Washington D.C., p. 324–344.

18. Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W., 1993b, Preface: In Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation, Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W. (eds.), ACS Symposium Series, v. 550, American Chemical Society: Washington D.C., p. xii-xiv.

17. Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W. (eds.), 1993a, Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation. ACS Symposium Series, v. 550, American Chemical Society: Washington D.C., 681 p.

16. Stoffregen, R.E. and Alpers, C.N., 1992, Observations on the cell dimensions, water contents and δD of natural and synthetic alunite:  American Mineralogist, v. 77, p. 1092–1098.

15. Alpers, C.N., Rye, R.O., Nordstrom, D.K., White, L.D., and King, Bi-Shia, 1992b, Chemical, crystallographic, and isotopic properties of alunite and jarosite from acid hypersaline Australian lakes:  Chemical Geology, v. 96, p. 203–226.

14. Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Burchard, J.M., 1992a, Compilation and interpretation of water-quality and discharge data for acidic mine waters at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, 1940-91.  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4160, 173 p.

13. Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1991, Evolution of extremely acid mine waters at Iron Mountain, California: Are there any lower limits to pH?, in Proceedings, Second International Conference on the Abatement of Acidic Drainage, Montréal, Québec, Canada, September 16-18, 1991, MEND (Mine Environment Neutral Drainage):  Ottawa, Canada, v. 2, p. 321–342.

12. Nordstrom, D.K., Burchard, J.M., and Alpers, C.N., 1990, The production and variability of acid mine drainage at Iron, Mountain, California: A Superfund site undergoing rehabilitation, in Acid Mine Drainage—Designing for Closure, J.W. Gadsby, J.A. Mallick, S.J. Day, eds., Bi-Tech Pub. Ltd.: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, p. 13–21.

11. Bussell, M.A., Alpers, C.N., Petersen, U., Shepherd, T.J., Bermudez, C., and Baxter, A.N., 1990, The Ag-Pb-Zn-Mn skarn, vein, and replacement deposits at Uchucchacua, Peru:  studies of structure, mineralogy, metal zoning, Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusions:  Economic Geology, v. 85, p. 1348–1383.

10. Alpers, C.N., Dettman, D., Lohmann, K.C., and Brabec, D., 1990a, Stable isotopes of carbon dioxide in soil gas over massive sulfide mineralization at Crandon, Wisconsin:  Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 38, p. 69–86.

9. Alpers, C.N., and Whittemore, D.O., 1990, Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes of ground and surface waters from two adjacent closed basins, Atacama Desert, northern Chile:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 5, p. 719–734.

8. Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1990, Stoichiometry of mineral reactions from mass balance computations for acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California, in Acid Mine Drainage— Designing for Closure, J.W. Gadsby, J.A. Mallick, S.J. Day, eds., Bi-Tech Pub. Ltd.: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, p. 23–33.

7. Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Ball, J.W., 1989, Solubility of jarosite solid solutions precipitated from acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California, U.S.A.:  Sciences Géologiques, Bulletin, v. 42, p. 281–298.

6. Alpers, C.N., and Brimhall, G.H, 1989, Paleohydrologic evolution and geochemical dynamics of cumulative supergene metal enrichment at La Escondida, Atacama Desert, northern Chile:  Economic Geology, v. 84, p. 229–255.

5. Alpers, C.N., and Brimhall, G.H, 1988, Middle Miocene climatic change in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile:  Evidence from supergene mineralization at La Escondida:  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, p. 1640–1646.

4. Stoffregen, R.E. and Alpers, C.N., 1987, Woodhouseite and svanbergite in hydrothermal ore deposits: Products of apatite destruction during advanced argillic alteration:  Canadian Mineralogist, v. 45, p. 201–211.

3. Alpers, C.N., 1986, Geochemical and Geomorphological Dynamics of Supergene Copper Sulfide Ore Formation and Preservation at La Escondida, Antofagasta, Chile: Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 220 p.

2. Brimhall, G.H, Alpers, C.N., and Cunningham, A.B., 1985, Analysis of supergene ore‑forming processes and ground‑water solute transport using mass balance principles:  Economic Geology, v. 80, p. 1227–1256.

1. Alpers, C.N., 1980, Mineralogy, Paragenesis, and Zoning of the Luz Vein, Uchucchacua District, Central Peru: Senior honors thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 138 p.