Ecosystems

Publications

Filter Total Items: 32,231
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Year Published: 2020

Evaluation of survey methods for colonial waterbirds at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

Estimating the number of breeding pairs in a mixed-species waterbird colony is difficult because colonial waterbirds are vulnerable to human intrusion and their colonies are often in remote areas with limited access. We investigated methods to estimate the number of nests of waterbirds at a large, mixed-species colony at Chase Lake National...

Igl, Lawrence D.; Bartos, Alisa J.; Woodward, Robert O.; Scherr, Paulette; Sovada, Marsha A.
Igl, L.D., Bartos, A.J., Woodward, R.O., Scherr, P., and Sovada, M.A, 2020, Evaluation of survey methods for colonial waterbirds at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1008, 44 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201008.

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Year Published: 2020

Identification of Acara (Cichlidae: Cichlasoma) established in Florida, USA

The Black Acara, Cichlasoma bimaculatum (Linnaeus, 1758), was first reported as introduced to Florida in 1965. Native to Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, western French Guiana, and northern Brazil, the species is now distributed throughout Florida’s southern peninsula. Examination of live and preserved acara from Central Florida, heretofore...

Robins, Robert H; Brown, Mary E.; Crutchfield, Ryan A

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Year Published: 2020

Field observations of wind waves in Upper Delaware Bay with living shorelines

Constructed oyster reefs (CORs) provide shore protections and habitats for fish and shellfish communities via wave energy attenuation. However, the processes and mechanism of CORs on wave attenuation remain unclear, thus limiting the effective assessment of CORs for shoreline protection. This paper presents results of a field investigation on wave...

Zhu, Ling; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Capurso, William D.; Niemoczynski, Lukasz; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg

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Year Published: 2020

Fatty acid-based diet estimates suggest ringed seal remain the main prey of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears despite recent use of onshore food resources

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) subpopulation have traditionally fed predominantly upon ice-seals; however, as the proportion of the subpopulation using onshore habitat has recently increased, foraging on land-based resources, including remains of subsistence-harvested bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) and...

Bourque, Jennifer; Atwood, Todd C.; Divoky, George J.; Stewart, Connie; McKinney, Melissa A.

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Year Published: 2020

Paired stated preference methods for valuing management of white pine blister rust: order effects and outcome uncertainty

The literature on nonmarket valuation includes many examples of stated and revealed preference comparisons. However, comparisons within stated preference methods are sparse. Specifically, the literature provides few examples of pairing both a discrete choice experiment (CE) and a contingent valuation (CV) question within a single survey. This...

Meldrum, James R.; Champ, Patricia A.; Bond, Craig A.; Schoettle, Anna

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Year Published: 2020

Rapid peat development beneath created, maturing mangrove forests: Ecosystem changes across a 25-year chronosequence

Mangrove forests are among the world’s most productive and carbon‐rich ecosystems. Despite growing understanding of factors controlling mangrove forest soil carbon stocks, there is a need to advance understanding of the speed of peat development beneath maturing mangrove forests— especially in created and restored mangrove forests that are...

Osland, Michael J.; Feher, Laura C.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Cormier, Nicole; From, Andrew; Krauss, Ken W.; Russell, Marc J.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; Stagg, Camille L.

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Year Published: 2020

Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and nearby areas, 1910–2018

This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 530 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens observed in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and neighboring areas from 1910 to 2018, and archived partly by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, and partly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine...

Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Olson, Jay W.; Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.
Durner, G.M., Amstrup, S.C., Atwood, T.C., Douglas, D.C., Fischbach, A.S., Olson, J.W., Rode, K.D., and Wilson, R.R., 2020, Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and nearby areas, 1910–2018: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1121, 12 p., including appendixes, https://doi.org/10.3133/ds1121. [Supersedes USGS Data Series 568.]

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Year Published: 2020

How "simple" methodological decisions affect interpretation of population structure based on reduced representation library DNA sequencing: A case study using the lake whitefish

Reduced representation (RRL) sequencing approaches (e.g., RADSeq, genotyping by sequencing) require decisions about how much to invest in genome coverage and sequencing depth, as well as choices of values for adjustable bioinformatics parameters. To empirically explore the importance of these “simple” methodological decisions, we generated two...

Graham, Carly F.; Boreham, Douglas R.; Manzon, Richard G.; Stott, Wendylee; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Somers, Christopher M.

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Year Published: 2020

Herpetofauna occupancy and community composition along a tidal swamp salinity gradient

Occupancy patterns of herpetofauna in most tidal freshwater swamps are unknown. Tidal freshwater swamps currently face multiple threats, including salinization, which can influence their associated plant and animal communities. The impacts of salinization to herpetofauna communities in tidal freshwater swamps have not been assessed. To improve...

Godfrey, Sidney T; Waddle, J. Hardin; Baldwin, Robert F; Conner, William H.; Bridges, William C; Duberstein, Jamie A.

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Year Published: 2020

Uptake, metabolism, and elimination of fungicides from coated wheat seeds in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

Pesticides coated to the seed surface potentially pose an ecological risk to granivorous birds that consume incompletely buried or spilled seeds. To assess the toxicokinetics of seeds treated with current-use fungicides, Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally dosed with commercially coated wheat seeds. Quail were exposed to metalaxyl,...

Gross, Michael S.; Thomas G. Bean; Hladik, Michelle; Rattner, Barnett A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

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Year Published: 2020

The clock keeps ticking: Circadian rhythms of free-ranging polar bears

Life in the Arctic presents organisms with multiple challenges including extreme photic conditions, cold temperatures, and annual loss and daily movement of sea ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) evolved under these unique conditions where they rely on ice to hunt their main prey, seals. However, very little is known regarding the dynamics of...

Ware, Jasmine V.; Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.; Leise, T.; Weil, C.R.; Jansen, Heiko T.
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Year Published: 2020

The historical context of contemporary climatic adaptation: A case study in the climatically dynamic and environmentally complex southwestern United States

The process of adaptation can be highly dependent upon historical and contemporary factors, especially in environmentally and topographically complex regions affected by Pleistocene glaciations. Here, we investigate Hilaria jamesii (Poaceae), a dryland C4 graminoid, to test how patterns of adaptive genetic variation are linked to...

Massatti, Robert; Knowles, L. Lacey